Even a brief study of the history of the events that led to the discovery of the strong force is of great interest. The first significant event in the chain of events which led to an understanding of the forces operating within the atomic nucleus was the discovery of radio activity. It was found that certain substances were naturally radio-active and that the rate of radio-active emission could neither be speeded up nor slowed down , as for instance by the processes of heating or cooling or subjecting of the sample to a magnetic or electric field. Radio active emission was thought initially to consist of two types of rays , alpha rays and gamma rays. Alpha rays were thought to be helium nuclei , this was confirmed when emissions from the radio active gas radon were collected and found to contain detectable amounts of helium . (Radon has a half life of about 12 min.) . Later on it was found that some of the gamma rays were very penetrative , being able to penetrate a thickness of 10 cms. of lead , it was proposed by Chadwick that these particles were able to penetrate so deeply into the lead because they were neutral in charge , hence the term neutrons . A study of the reactions due to neutrons led to the assumption that their mass was slightly greater than that of the proton. This point marked the true beginning of the study of the nucleus , because it was found that the neutron , because it was neutral and hence not deflected away from the nucleus could easily bring about nuclear changes. Many types of nuclear reactions were observed , in some the nucleus was split giving rise to two new lighter elements , in others the neutron was absorbed into the nucleus resulting in a radio active isotope which , after a certain period of time under went decay, in yet other reactions , the neutron was absorbed into the nucleus resulting in the formation of a heavier element.. It was soon obvious that the forces holding the nucleus together were extremely powerful even when compared to the electro-magnetic force which till then had been the strongest known natural force. Yukawa suggested that this force might be due to the exchange of particles which he called pions between neucleons. This hypotheses was later confirmed by experiments involving cosmic rays , as also the fact , that the nucleons themselves underwent transformations , a proton changing into a neutron and a positive pion and a neutron undergoing a similar change into a proton. So that the nucleus represents a constant exchange of energies and identities. This is not surprising since the forces acting in the nucleus are millions of times stronger than the EM force and average about 1.72 x 10 3MeV. The energies needed to bring about a change in the nucleus start at around 1.2MeV. It is seen very clearly that these kind of matter to energy and energy to matter transformations require high energies and are a characteristic of that high energy. To claim , as does QED , that EM radiation with energies of 10-13 eV could result in the same sort of transformations is obviously in direct contradiction to this and lacks logic since it involves staggering differences in energy in the two situations which vary by a factor of 10-19. QED is often advertised as being the most perfect example of how QM works , QED it is claimed has been tested time and time again and always gives the correct answer. Yet in actual fact , even the proponents of QED admit that re-normalisation makes a mockery of the whole mathematical processes involved. In short the claims made for QED are very much like the claims made for cold fusion . QED does not explain how for instance , it is possible for the annihilation of entangled electron positron pairs to result in the energies represented by photons which vary over many trillions of different frequencies and energies , and thus result in the propagation of EM radiation over huge distances. QED does not adequately explain how the jiggling or vibration of an electron or an ion in a wire can result in the propagation of this energy over millions of miles. It also does not explain how photons can preserve their identity , it makes no qualitative difference between the energies of the near or reactive field and the far or radiative field. In short what QED has done is to take the conclusions drawn from high energy nuclear physics and try to force these same conclusions onto very low energy EM fields , this is something that does not work.