My understanding is that Bell's theorem, which is considered to eliminate all deterministic causes for quantum events, assumes that no signal can travel faster than c. I further understand that at least one theory has been proposed which explains quantum events as effects caused by signals which propagate faster than c. I can look up the references upon which this understanding is based, if you feel that I have misunderstood what I have read.In the symmetry-based axiomatizations, this is not a postulate but a theorem.
The bulk of your #24 seems to be based on a misunderstanding of quantum-mechanical entanglement. Entanglement does not propagate signals at >c.
My point is that if one starts with the notion that an event is the effect of a cause, then our observations of quantum events can be taken as evidence that the effect of at least one cause can propagate faster than c.
On the other hand, if one starts with the notion that no effect can propagate faster than c, then other observations can be taken as evidence that at least some events have no cause.
Is there any definitive empirical evidence which eliminates one of these alternatives?
Wald, in his discussion of the Hubble constant, notes that the relative velocity of two galaxies can exceed c if the distance between them is large enough. "This does not contradict the fundamental tenet of SR and GR that "nothing can travel faster than the speed of light", since this tenet refers to the locally measured relative velocity of two objects at the same spacetime event, not a globally defined velocity between distant objects." Wald is not suggesting that quantum events can be explained by a signal which travels faster than the speed of light. But he is saying that on the global scale--invisible to our measurements--objects can indeed have a relative velocity greater than c. I am suggesting that if there are global conditions which we cannot measure, there may also be local conditions which we cannot measure--effects which propagate faster than c.We've been discussing SR. GR is locally equivalent to SR. GR does not allow for objects to have speeds greater than c on a local basis, i.e., relative to other nearby objects. When you get to the case of distant objects, GR does not even provide an unambiguous definition of the notion of relative velocity. E.g., you can say that distant galaxies are receding from us at >c, but someone who picks a different coordinate system can get a different answer.
In short, GR allows for a reality which we cannot measure. That being the case, we ought not to be dogmatic about the existence (or non-existence) of causes for quantum events--knowing as we do that we are unable to measure these events dynamically. (That is, no one has measured the actual collapse of a photon, for example.)