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The Theory of Moving Dimensions

Dr. Elliot McGucken

mcgucken@jollyroger.com

In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to

the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain

physical phenomena encountered in relativity and quantum mechanics,

while offering a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics and

Relativity.

Simply put, it is not possible to rotate an object into the time

dimension without that object gaining a velocity. Thus the time

dimension itself must be expanding relative to the three spatial

dimensions. Another way of looking at this is asking, "Why does

something always move when it is rotated out of the three spatial

dimensions and into the time dimension?" If someone can conduct a

Lorentz transformation on a ruler, and rotate it into the time

dimension without it moving through the three spatial dimensions, I

would very much like to hear about it.

Einstein's two postulates of relativity state:

I. The laws of physical phenomena are the same in all inertial frames.

II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,

independendent of any relative motion of teh source and teh observer.

I propose that the two postulates may be expressed in an alternative

manner, by stating the following law of moving dimensions:

I. The time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial

dimensions.

This can be shown illustrated in several ways: Consider an expression

for the space-time interval of zero length, or of the null vector,

which traces a photon's path through space-time:

x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=0

or

x^2+y^2+z^2=c^2t^2

Which for one spatial dimension becomes

x^2=c^2t^2

or x=ct

by taking the derivative of both sides with respect to t, we get

dx/dt = d/dt (ct) = c

so

dx/dt = c

And hence the time rate of change of the spatial dimension relative to

the time rate of change of the time dimension is equal to the velocity

of light.

ct| /

| /

| /

| /

| /

|/_______________

x

Also, if we trace the path of a photon on a space-time diagram, the

only way for a photon to remain stationary in space time is to move at

the speed of light, or to keep up with the expanding time dimension.

The null vector, which represents a vector of zero length in

space-time, can only imply zero movement through space-time. Even

though a photon moves through space at a velocity equal to C, it stays

stationary in space-time. Is it not strange at first that in order to

remain stationary in space time, a photon appears move at the speed of

light through space? This is only because the time dimension itself is

moving relative to space.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.

Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it

is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying

that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its

projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be

stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate

of c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along

the x axis still shortens, but now it begins to move through the three

spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed of c through

space-time. Again, we see it move through the three spatial

dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the time

dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant

Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector

x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),

where tau is the proper time defined by

d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through

space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,

((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed

of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation

c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2

+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed

through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by

a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,

which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's

own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our

stationary clock dt.

As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time

dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it

relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave

fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based

on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a

moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the

chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is

diminished.

Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving

relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and

quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical

reality.

Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by

the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time

dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of

mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving

dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also

rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.

As one rotates into the time dimension, one becomes more orthogonal to

the spatial dimensions, and thus one's length contracts. And too, as

the time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions, one

begins to move.

Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior

can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in

which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,

reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be

accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in

the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle

or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,

moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial

dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying

energy and thus mass.

The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted

for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of

existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all

dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's

wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated

into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the

spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally

in all directions.

Einstein's second postulate, stating that the velocity of light is a

universal constant, holds to be true because the velocity of light is

merely the rate of propagation of a dimension relative to the other

dimensions. Although this relative rate of propagations between

dimensions may vary, we shall always interpret it as a constant,

because we are used to measuring the velocity of the propagation of

energy relative to the velocity of the propagation of energy, which we

write as c.

Relativistic time dialation occurs because as an object approaches the

speed of light, the object approaches the speed of the propagation of

energy. As time is measured with regards to the propagation of energy,

such as the emission of a photon (in an electrical circuit or a

mechanical spring) or or the occurence of a random event which

liberates energy, less time will pass for an entity which is

propagating at a rate which is close to the propagation of energy

itself. As an entity gains velocity, it is roated into the moving time

dimension, and it in a sense it catches up with the dimension.

Relativistic length contraction is always accompanied by an increase

in velocity, as the probability that each quantum of the object

resides in the time dimension is increased. Relativistic length

contraction can be accounted for by the fact that as an object gains

velocity its probabilistic wave function, or its essence, is rotated

into the time dimension, and thus it appears shorter from the

persepective of the three spatial dimensions. At the speed of light

the object would have to be a photon, so as to be completely absent

from the spatial dimension, as any presence or probability that a

particle is in the spatial dimnsion means that there is a probability

that the time dimension will expand without carrying it along, in

essence leaving it behind for that moment it exists in the spatial

dimension.

Any material entity gains more energy as its velocity increases, and

relativity demonstrates that the entity also gains more mass. When

energy is added to an entity, it may also appears as mass, as that

energy has a finite chance of interacting with the spatial dimensions.

All matter has a spatial component, or a probability of interacting

with space, whereas a photon only interacts with that which is in the

time dimension.

In order to cause an entity to move, quanta of energy must be added to

it, and the entity will thus gain a new probabilities for existing in

the space and time dimensions, as its overall wavefunction, including

its mass and energy, is rotated out of the spatial dimension and into

the time dimension. This rotation into the time dimension will be

proportional to the amount of energy that has been added.

As only photons can exist purely in the spatial dimension, no entities

but for photons can ever reach the speed of light, as all matter has a

finite chance of existing purely in the spatial dimension. This

property gives rise to the concept of mass, as to exist in the spatial

dimension curves the fabric of space-time about the existence.

An entity moves through space-time according to its probability of

existing in space and time. The more energy a given entity has, the

more likely it is to exist in the time dimension, or be moving along

in the dimension which is expanding relative to the spatial

dimensions. Hence its greater velocity, and also its augmented chance

of interacting with matter over a fixed distance. This increased

chance of interacting with matter over a given distance can be

associated with a shorter deBroglie wavelength or a higher frequency.

A more energetic photon has a higher frequency, as it is composed of

more substance, and more momenergy must pass a given point at any

given time. A less energetic photon carries less momenergy, and thus

there is a smaller chance of it interacting with matter as it passes

on by. A more energetic photon has a higher probability of interacting

with matter as it passes it by, as its shorter wavelngth and higher

frequency represent a greater, more persistant existence in

space-time.

A photon has no spatial dimensions, as it is matter rotated into the

time dimension. Einstein's famous equation which expresses the

equivalnce between matter and energy:

E=mc^2

holds true because radiative energy, consisting of photons, is merely

matter which has been rotaed tinto the expanding time dimension.

In quantum mechanics energy is accounted for by the operator which

represents the infinitesimal change with respect to time, while

momentum is accounted for by an operator which represents the

infinitesimal change with respect to space. Both momentum and energy

are defined with the concept of change and probability. And too,

inherent in all waves are the concepts of motion and probability.

Einstein's postulates derive from the fact that in all inertial

reference frames, the relative motions between the dimensions is fixed

at a constant rate, because the relative motion between the dimensions

is measured relative to the relative motion. Thus the laws of physics,

and all physical concepts, which are all fundamentally based on the

concept of motion or change with respect to time, are also fixed in

all interial frames, and the speed of light is constant in all

inertail frames.

As physics concerns itself at all levels with changes relative to both

space and time, it makes sense that all physics, time, motion,

reality, life, and consciousness itself are founded upon a stage which

is endowed with intrinsic motion.

The underlying fabric of all reality, the dimensions themselves, are

moving relative to one another.

I'm treating this as an open-source physics project, if anyone would

like to join me at http://physicsmathforums.com/showthread.php?t=16 [Broken]

Dr. Elliot McGucken

mcgucken@jollyroger.com

In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to

the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain

physical phenomena encountered in relativity and quantum mechanics,

while offering a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics and

Relativity.

Simply put, it is not possible to rotate an object into the time

dimension without that object gaining a velocity. Thus the time

dimension itself must be expanding relative to the three spatial

dimensions. Another way of looking at this is asking, "Why does

something always move when it is rotated out of the three spatial

dimensions and into the time dimension?" If someone can conduct a

Lorentz transformation on a ruler, and rotate it into the time

dimension without it moving through the three spatial dimensions, I

would very much like to hear about it.

Einstein's two postulates of relativity state:

I. The laws of physical phenomena are the same in all inertial frames.

II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,

independendent of any relative motion of teh source and teh observer.

I propose that the two postulates may be expressed in an alternative

manner, by stating the following law of moving dimensions:

I. The time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial

dimensions.

This can be shown illustrated in several ways: Consider an expression

for the space-time interval of zero length, or of the null vector,

which traces a photon's path through space-time:

x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=0

or

x^2+y^2+z^2=c^2t^2

Which for one spatial dimension becomes

x^2=c^2t^2

or x=ct

by taking the derivative of both sides with respect to t, we get

dx/dt = d/dt (ct) = c

so

dx/dt = c

And hence the time rate of change of the spatial dimension relative to

the time rate of change of the time dimension is equal to the velocity

of light.

ct| /

| /

| /

| /

| /

|/_______________

x

Also, if we trace the path of a photon on a space-time diagram, the

only way for a photon to remain stationary in space time is to move at

the speed of light, or to keep up with the expanding time dimension.

The null vector, which represents a vector of zero length in

space-time, can only imply zero movement through space-time. Even

though a photon moves through space at a velocity equal to C, it stays

stationary in space-time. Is it not strange at first that in order to

remain stationary in space time, a photon appears move at the speed of

light through space? This is only because the time dimension itself is

moving relative to space.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.

Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it

is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying

that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its

projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be

stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate

of c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along

the x axis still shortens, but now it begins to move through the three

spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed of c through

space-time. Again, we see it move through the three spatial

dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the time

dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant

Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector

x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),

where tau is the proper time defined by

d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through

space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,

((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed

of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation

c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2

+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed

through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by

a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,

which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's

own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our

stationary clock dt.

As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time

dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it

relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave

fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based

on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a

moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the

chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is

diminished.

Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving

relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and

quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical

reality.

Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by

the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time

dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of

mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving

dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also

rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.

As one rotates into the time dimension, one becomes more orthogonal to

the spatial dimensions, and thus one's length contracts. And too, as

the time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions, one

begins to move.

Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior

can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in

which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,

reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be

accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in

the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle

or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,

moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial

dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying

energy and thus mass.

The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted

for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of

existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all

dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's

wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated

into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the

spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally

in all directions.

Einstein's second postulate, stating that the velocity of light is a

universal constant, holds to be true because the velocity of light is

merely the rate of propagation of a dimension relative to the other

dimensions. Although this relative rate of propagations between

dimensions may vary, we shall always interpret it as a constant,

because we are used to measuring the velocity of the propagation of

energy relative to the velocity of the propagation of energy, which we

write as c.

Relativistic time dialation occurs because as an object approaches the

speed of light, the object approaches the speed of the propagation of

energy. As time is measured with regards to the propagation of energy,

such as the emission of a photon (in an electrical circuit or a

mechanical spring) or or the occurence of a random event which

liberates energy, less time will pass for an entity which is

propagating at a rate which is close to the propagation of energy

itself. As an entity gains velocity, it is roated into the moving time

dimension, and it in a sense it catches up with the dimension.

Relativistic length contraction is always accompanied by an increase

in velocity, as the probability that each quantum of the object

resides in the time dimension is increased. Relativistic length

contraction can be accounted for by the fact that as an object gains

velocity its probabilistic wave function, or its essence, is rotated

into the time dimension, and thus it appears shorter from the

persepective of the three spatial dimensions. At the speed of light

the object would have to be a photon, so as to be completely absent

from the spatial dimension, as any presence or probability that a

particle is in the spatial dimnsion means that there is a probability

that the time dimension will expand without carrying it along, in

essence leaving it behind for that moment it exists in the spatial

dimension.

Any material entity gains more energy as its velocity increases, and

relativity demonstrates that the entity also gains more mass. When

energy is added to an entity, it may also appears as mass, as that

energy has a finite chance of interacting with the spatial dimensions.

All matter has a spatial component, or a probability of interacting

with space, whereas a photon only interacts with that which is in the

time dimension.

In order to cause an entity to move, quanta of energy must be added to

it, and the entity will thus gain a new probabilities for existing in

the space and time dimensions, as its overall wavefunction, including

its mass and energy, is rotated out of the spatial dimension and into

the time dimension. This rotation into the time dimension will be

proportional to the amount of energy that has been added.

As only photons can exist purely in the spatial dimension, no entities

but for photons can ever reach the speed of light, as all matter has a

finite chance of existing purely in the spatial dimension. This

property gives rise to the concept of mass, as to exist in the spatial

dimension curves the fabric of space-time about the existence.

An entity moves through space-time according to its probability of

existing in space and time. The more energy a given entity has, the

more likely it is to exist in the time dimension, or be moving along

in the dimension which is expanding relative to the spatial

dimensions. Hence its greater velocity, and also its augmented chance

of interacting with matter over a fixed distance. This increased

chance of interacting with matter over a given distance can be

associated with a shorter deBroglie wavelength or a higher frequency.

A more energetic photon has a higher frequency, as it is composed of

more substance, and more momenergy must pass a given point at any

given time. A less energetic photon carries less momenergy, and thus

there is a smaller chance of it interacting with matter as it passes

on by. A more energetic photon has a higher probability of interacting

with matter as it passes it by, as its shorter wavelngth and higher

frequency represent a greater, more persistant existence in

space-time.

A photon has no spatial dimensions, as it is matter rotated into the

time dimension. Einstein's famous equation which expresses the

equivalnce between matter and energy:

E=mc^2

holds true because radiative energy, consisting of photons, is merely

matter which has been rotaed tinto the expanding time dimension.

In quantum mechanics energy is accounted for by the operator which

represents the infinitesimal change with respect to time, while

momentum is accounted for by an operator which represents the

infinitesimal change with respect to space. Both momentum and energy

are defined with the concept of change and probability. And too,

inherent in all waves are the concepts of motion and probability.

Einstein's postulates derive from the fact that in all inertial

reference frames, the relative motions between the dimensions is fixed

at a constant rate, because the relative motion between the dimensions

is measured relative to the relative motion. Thus the laws of physics,

and all physical concepts, which are all fundamentally based on the

concept of motion or change with respect to time, are also fixed in

all interial frames, and the speed of light is constant in all

inertail frames.

As physics concerns itself at all levels with changes relative to both

space and time, it makes sense that all physics, time, motion,

reality, life, and consciousness itself are founded upon a stage which

is endowed with intrinsic motion.

The underlying fabric of all reality, the dimensions themselves, are

moving relative to one another.

I'm treating this as an open-source physics project, if anyone would

like to join me at http://physicsmathforums.com/showthread.php?t=16 [Broken]

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