I don't think I've ever heard the term "time continuum" before. Could you be more specific about what property of time you are wondering about?
Time was believed to be separate from space; and events would take place in the background of space and time. They believed time was absolute and was eternal in both directions. It was thought people could measure the time between two events and the time would be measured the same no matter who measured it.
The way time was understood back then is about exactly how most of the humans today understand time. (Except for people like the people who read PF)
Einstein blew the idea of absolute time out of the water in 1905…the implications of what he noticed are amazing…
I could go on if you would like, but I am not sure if I am elaborating on your question about a “Time Continuum”…. I was simply talking about the way I have learned about “time.”
I think I read some where that because of this universal relationship that exists the universe moves through time as one, irrespective of localised time dillations and compressions.
I think the writer was saying that if you move your hand then you are in synch with movement on the "other side" of the universe.