# Topics in Fluid Mechanics

• Astronuc
In summary: Introduction In this module, you will learn about fluids, their properties, and how they flow. You will also learn about mechanics, including statics, dynamics, and real fluids. You will also learn about dimensional analysis and worked examples. Finally, you will learn about past examination solutions.

#### Astronuc

Staff Emeritus
2023 Award
http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~johnc/teaching/fluidmechanics4/2003-04/fluids3/syllabus.html#syl3 [Broken]

Nice set - but parts seem to be missing

Introduction. Experimental observations. definitions: fluid as a continuum, streamlines, streamtubes, particle paths, streaklines, circulation, vorticity. Frames of reference and co-ordinate systems - Tritton 1,2,3,5 &6, Rouse 2, WWW 1,3,12

Classical mechanics applied to fluids. Continuity, Incompressibility, Vector notation, Material derivative operator, acceleration vector, (rate of strain tensor, stress tensor, isotropic and deviatoric stresses) - Tritton 5, 6, Bird 3, Kay 12, WWW 4,5,7, Schlichting 3,4,5 (references also apply to next lectures)

Navier Stokes equations, Boundary conditions; importance of Reynolds number - Tritton 7, Schlichting 4, WWW 7,9,11

Low Re flows; Creeping flow approximation; Poiseuille and Couette flows and Stokes flow past a sphere - Tritton 8,9, Schlichting 1,5,6, WWW 12

High Re flows; difficulties in simplifying Navier Stokes equations Euler's Equation - Tritton 8, Bird 4, WWW 9

Potential flow: Velocity Potential and Stream functions, Cauchy-Riemann analysis, flow nets for steady 2D irrotational flow, lift, Kutta-Joukowski theorem, d'Alembert's paradox - Tritton 13, Rouse 28,40-44, Prandtl 2, WWW 10

Boundary Layer Approximation; simplification of Navier Stokes Equation, Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers, exact (Blasius) treatment of laminar layer. Von Karman Momentum Integral Analysis, Boundary Layers over curved surfaces, Separation and reattachment; causes, control & effect on bulk flow - Tritton 11,12 Schlichting 2,7,8,9,14, Kay 13, WWW 12

Heat and Mass Transfer through Boundary Layers, relations between heat, mass and momentum transfer across flow boundaries - Tritton 14, Schlichting 12, Bird 10,18, WWW 16,19,20,25,28,30

Turbulence; phenomena, experiments, descriptions & theories, homogeneous isotropic turbulence, turbulent pipe flow, turbulence and mixing, Dimensional Analysis, Experimentation - Tritton 19,20,21,25, Schlichting 18-22,24, Bird 5,12,20, WWW 11,13,14, Harnby

Two phase flow; liquid-gas flow regimes in vertical and horizontal pipes, pressure drops - Holland 7

References

Tritton D.J. "Physical Fluid Dynamics" Clarendon Press, Oxford. 2nd ed 1988
Welty, Wicks & Wilson "Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass transfer" Wiley 1984
Holland F.A. and Bragg R. "Fluid Flow for Chemical Engineers" Edward Arnold 2nd ed 1995
Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot "Transport Phenomena" Wiley 1960
Rouse H. "Advanced Mechanics of Fluids" Wiley 1959
Kay J.M. and Nedderman R.M. "Fluid Mechanics and Transfer Processes" C.U.P. 1985
Prandtl L. "Essentials of Fluid Dynamics" Blackie & Son 1952
Schlichting H. "Boundary Layer Theory" McGraw Hill 6th ed 1968
Harnby, Edwards and Nienow "Mixing in the Process Industries" Butterworths 1991

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School-wide Program on Fluid Mechanics
Modules on High Reynolds Number Flows
K. P. Burr, T. R. Akylas & C. C. Mei

CHAPTER ONE
RAYLEIGH PROBLEM - DIFFUSION OF VORTICITY DUE TO NO SLIP AT BOUNDARY
http://web.mit.edu/fluids-modules/www/highspeed_flows/ver2/bl_Chap1/node1.html

CHAPTER TWO
TWO-DIMENSIONAL LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYERS
http://web.mit.edu/fluids-modules/www/highspeed_flows/ver2/bl_Chap2/bl_Chap2_h.html

High Speed Flows
http://web.mit.edu/fluids-modules/www/highspeed_flows/

Fluid Mechanics
http://web.mit.edu/fluids-modules/www/

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CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics

http://www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/CIVE1400/

Dr Andrew Sleigh & Dr Cath Noakes
Civil Engineering
University of Leeds

Introduction
Fluids and Their Properties
Statics
Dynamics
Real Fluids
Dimensional analysis
Worked examples
Some pictures
Past Examination Solutions

## 1. What is fluid mechanics?

Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics that studies the behavior of fluids (liquids and gases) at rest and in motion. It involves the study of the forces and motions of fluids, as well as their interactions with solid objects.

## 2. What are the applications of fluid mechanics?

Fluid mechanics has a wide range of applications in various fields such as engineering, environmental science, meteorology, and geology. It is used to understand and design systems involving fluids, such as pumps, turbines, and aircraft wings. It is also used in predicting weather patterns, analyzing ocean currents, and studying the behavior of blood flow in the human body.

## 3. What are the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics?

The three fundamental principles of fluid mechanics are conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, and conservation of energy. These principles help us understand how fluids behave and how they interact with their surroundings.

## 4. What is the difference between laminar and turbulent flow?

Laminar flow is a smooth and orderly flow of fluid, where the particles move in parallel layers without mixing. Turbulent flow, on the other hand, is a chaotic and irregular flow, where the particles mix and move in a random manner. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on factors such as fluid viscosity and flow velocity.

## 5. How is Bernoulli's equation used in fluid mechanics?

Bernoulli's equation is a fundamental equation in fluid mechanics that relates the pressure, velocity, and height of a fluid. It is used to understand the relationship between these properties and how they change in a fluid flow. This equation is commonly used in the design and analysis of fluid systems, such as in aircraft wings and pipelines.