This question relates to 50Hz power toroidal transformers. Toroidal transformers are well known for their self shielding properties and consequently have a near-zero external field. Most of the magnetic flux lies within the core. Yet if one where to thread a good conductor through the centre of the toroid and connect the ends to form a loop, thus creating a one-turn secondary, one would in practice cause a short circuit and a very large current would flow (limited by the resistance of the loop). This seems to imply that the loop is experiencing most of the field created by the primary coil. How can this be explained when the wire itself lies completely in a near-zero field region? Seems spooky to me. This phenomenon is not restricted to toroidal transformers but is at the heart of every electrical machine, just that in a toroidal transformer it becomes plain that current theories and textbooks are missing something big time. The standard answer would be that the emf generated in the secondary depends on the amount of flux “linking” the primary and secondary and in this case all of the flux plainly passes through the area enclosed by the secondary circuit. I just cannot see how this “explanation” explains anything. How do the electrons in the wire feel the primary magnetic field?