I have plethora of questions about light: 1.) I understand that light is created when the electrons in an atom jump to a higher level and fall back down to their ground state. When light is emitted, is it emitted orthogonal to the electron or at the angle of absorption? How is light emitted orthogonal to the nucleus when the electron jumps and falls back orthogonal to the nucleus? Isn't light emitted perpendicular to the direction that the electron jumps? Or are the electrons not orbiting parallel to the nucleus? Do photons/light waves propagate outward in all directions, e.g. a ripple in a pond, or unidirectionally? 2.) Is light from a reflective surface like a mirror really absorbed and re-emitted or is it just reflected? Is any energy lost in the process of re-emitting light, i.e. is some of the energy of the absorbed photon turned into heat, or is it a complete conversion? Is their any way to modulate the amount/wavelength of photons re-emitted? Do ionized atoms emit different wavelengths than their electrically neutral counterparts would? Does light in the form of photons/waves lose energy as it propagates through space and if so how? 3.) Light is described as being an electromagnetic wave, with electric and magnetic components. I understand these components come from electrons having magnetic and electric properties. How exactly do the magnetic and electric properties of electrons merge to form electromagnetic waves? Is the electric component caused by the electrons falling from higher energy levels? How is the magnetic component created? How does an electromagnetic wave contain both a magnetic and electric component within one wave? How do current, magnetic and electric fields affect light or produce it, and conversely, how does light affect said fields and current? 4.) I am familiar with seeing light shown like this: Lightwave Is there any way to visualize light in 3D instead of 2D cross sections? Is light a standing wave and does it contain a definite beginning and end point on the wave (does it have a definite length, not wavelength)? How does light get polarized in the first place, and into circular and elliptical angles? Does the amplitude and intensity of light correspond to the amplitude of the individual photon/wave or is it a property of the sum of the photons/waves of the light? 5.) I've also seen light shown as loops of electric lines of force: Loop I am confused as to how the loop correalates to a wave and why it is expanding. Is the wave increasing in size and if so how? I am struggling to visualize how all these processes are occurring to create light and would appreciate any help. Thank you.