1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data 2. Relevant equations 3. The attempt at a solution I know that according to the Malus law formula, if the angle is 0 < θ < 90 then there is some transmission. But I need help understanding this physically. If we think of a polarizer/analyzer as a "lattice", i.e. kind of like this then after having passed through such, the light waves should only be in one direction, right? So how can it then matter what other direction the next lattice (analyzer) is? Are we supposed to think of the light waves as components in x and y direction? In that case, wouldn't a pure y-direction wave have no x-component? Wouldn't that then happen if you put the polarizer so that it transmits in y direction only? But then it comes back to my original question, why would the direction of the analyzer matter, why wouldn't it only allow transmission when θ = 0? Please help me understand this further. I understand a lattice is not a perfect visualization of it. What would be a possible better image/object to visualize polarization with than a lattice?