Valence of Transition Metals

  1. Judging from the electron configurations, it appears to me that all transition metals in their normal state have 2 valence electrons. If it isn't, what are the valences of the transition metals, why can they have many different valences, and what are the 1B-8B columns for?

    Number of electrons in each energy shell:
    Ar : 2, 8, 8
    K : 2, 8, 8, 1
    Ca : 2, 8, 8 , 2
    (Transition Metals)
    Sc : 2, 8, 9 , 2
    Ti : 2, 8, 10, 2
    V : 2, 8, 11, 2
    Cr : 2, 8, 12, 2
    ::
    ::
    ::
    ::
    Zn : 2, 8, 18, 2
    Ga : 2, 8, 18, 3---------and so on.
     
  2. jcsd
  3. DrClaude

    DrClaude 2,284
    Science Advisor
    Homework Helper
    Gold Member

    That's because the 3d electrons are listed before the 4s. The 4s orbital gets filled first, hence Ca is 4s2, and then the 3d orbitals (the 4s being completely filled), hence Sc is 3d14s2, and so on.

    The d electrons are most definitely valence electrons and participate in bonding.
     
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