[SOLVED] What are electon personal theory In the following I describe a theory in simple terms that might be an answer to this question. With respect to this question, there are two cases to discuss which are related but reasonably different. Case #1: The hydrogen atom by itself and the hydrogen atoms within a molecule of hydrogen. Case #2: All other elements have neutrons within the core. First, let's talk about the neutron: The neutron has its own set of electromagnetic properties which, from a simplistic viewpoint, can be described as having a sponge-like proton core covered by a thin hollow electron sphere. (I'm ignoring quarks.) For an mental image, think of the neutron as an orange with juice filled sections covered by a thick skin. The attraction between the proton (wave) and the electron (wave) is one part of the reason the proton and the electron stay together inside the neutron. (Another way to view this interaction is to envision the coherent merging of two waves.) There is however a repulsion factor within the neutron. Repulsion exists between the magnetic field nature of the electron and the magnetic field nature of the proton. This repulsion tends to force them apart, but the electron and the neutron stay together because an electron anti-neutrino is present between the electron skin and the proton core, and also because of the electric attaction forces between the electron and the proton parts. The anti-neutrino is not yet a proven particle, but, assuming it exists, it serves as either a "super glue" or a "masking agent" that hides enough of the repulsion to allow the electric fields to hold it all together. This means there is a continuous battle between the electric attraction and the magnetic repulsion within the neutron. (If you venture into the quark view of the neutron, you can derive a similar picture.) The neutron, which is an extremely important but ignored player in atomic structure, appears to have a null charge as an object, but clearly has a strong magnetic field (moment). The magnetic field of the neutron acts as buffer that helps keep the electrons, in non-hydrogen atoms, attached to the atom despite the magnetic repulsion between the magnetic nature of protons in the core and the magnetic nature of the electrons. The neutrons also serve as a buffer in the core by "neutralizing" some of the same charge repulsion and same magnetic nature repulsion. If memory serves corrently, then there is some evidence that suggests there may be some weak charge associated with the neutron. Not sure of the type. Now, let's focus on the very odd hydrogen atom: The hydrogen is odd because it has no neutrons. The electromagnetic properties of the proton are similar but different from those of the electron. The positive wave nature of the proton tries to merge with the negative wave nature of the electron, but, just like the neutron, the magnetic fields repel and so the two can not collapse and "explode". Please note that the core itself is always moving and seems to have a shell system very similar to that of the electrons. This constant rotation of the protons looks like it drags the electrons around, but what causes the protons to rotate. (We'll leave that one for later.) Since elementary particles are always moving around other particles within an atom, there is angular centripedal force which adds to the ability of the electron to "escape" from the core. I'm not sure how much this contributes to the overall stability of the electron - proton system, but it does contribute. Moving away from the odd-ball hydrogen atom now: It is important to consider atoms with Z>1 and to consider the shapes of the electron orbitals that interact with the protons and the neutrons of the core of "real" atoms. Real atoms are all other atoms that have neutrons in the core, unlike the hydrogen which is an oddball and requires special consideration. Yes, I know that the observed matter in the universe is 90% hydrogen, but it is not the atom that makes our world go round. We all agree that hydrogen is clearly the source of all other atoms via the fusion process, but it is just one of 100 different elements and the other 99 have neutrons. Addressing now the electron cloud and electron orbital pictures: In hundreds of textbooks there are images of electrons being dispersed as electron clouds that engulf the proton core. These images are derived from statistical probabilities used to try to make QM appear useful. Unfortunately QM can not predict anything about any atom other than hydrogen. Beyond hydrogen QM must make dozens of approximations and assumptions to even get close to predicting any properties of other atoms. The Sommerfeld modification of the Bohr model is a more correct image. The "wave packet" nature of the electron, which satisfies the Heisenberg Uncertainty Priniciple, is needed to make the Sommerfeld model more correct. (personally I see no need for the Uncertainty Principle, but lots of people like it because it gives them room to fudge). We have not yet addressed the spin, but will do so. Why am I so bold to say Sommerfeld's model is more correct than the cloud envelop derived from QM and probabilities? Well, let's take a look at a so-called "p-orbital" which, by QM, looks like two tear drops held together by the pointed ends. This orbital suggests that the wave packet or the quantum or the EM aspect of the electron can tunnel through the core and appear on the other side of the core. If the EM aspect could go forward in time as it passes thru the core, then OK, all is feasible. However, the force fields in a core, filled with protons and neutrons, is a dense bowl of huge charges that are at least 1837 times more massive (charged) than the electron. Don't forget that these proton masses or charges are opposite in nature. The attraction between a tunneling electron (mass or wave) and the protons in the core suggests that the poor electron must be captured by a proton and that a neutron must immediately decay and eject a new electron out the other side of the core. Sounds like a huge emission/ absorption (exchange) of energy within a very confined space. The same process has to happen when there are "d-orbital" electrons and "f-orbital" electrons. If this were so, then the core would be so crowded and busy that coincidence must occur. A much easier way to avoid such an extremely energetic system is to devise a set of p, d and f-orbitals that satisfy the need for spin and do not pass through the core. My colleague and I have been devising such a system over the past 2 years and are nearly ready to write a small book describing our findings and theory.