Hi there! I'm new here and am currently looking into the Hartle-Hawking and Hawking-Turok Quantum creation models.(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

What I've read about the Hartle-Hawking model is that it predicted a Closed Universe. But isn't that the opposite of what we have learned? The WMAP sattelite has confirmed the Universe to be flat with only a 0.5% margin of error. If it is the case that the Universe is flat, doesn't that falsify the Hartle-Hawking model which predicted a closed Universe? On one site from the University of Victoria it says this:

"The problem with Hartle and Hawking's theory is that it predicted the universe is "closed." Consider a closed universe to be the surface of an inflating balloon. Objects such as galaxies on the surface of the balloon would move away in one direction as the balloon inflates, and eventually end up at their initial positions. In addition, the concept of a closed universe implies that the universe will one day stop expanding, and collapse under the force of its own gravity.

Observations suggest that there is insufficient matter in the universe to create enough gravity to recollapse it. In fact, there is evidence predicting the universe to be expanding at a faster rate than the inflationary theory predicts. Thus, observations favor the idea of an "open" universe, a universe that will continue to expand. One way of picturing an open universe is thinking of it as a horse's saddle, which curves up on one side and curves down on the other." ( http://web.uvic.ca/~jtwong/Hartle-Hawking.htm )

It seems like that was written before the WMAP sattelite confirmed a flat Universe to some degree of certainty. But then, I read that Hawking and Turok made a similar model that predicted a Open Universe, the so called "Hawking-Turok Instanton Theory" because the data seemed to predict a Non-Closed Universe. But their model predicts a Open Universe. And the latest data leans more towards a Flat Universe, so, if the Universe is confirmed to be flat to a very high degree of precision, doesn't that falsify the Hartle-Hawking and Hawking-Turok models?

Thanks!

**Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion**

Join Physics Forums Today!

The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

# What does the geometry of the Universe have to say about the Hartle-Hawking model?

Loading...

**Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion**