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What happens to Electricity which is supplied to distribution transformers that have no load?

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  1. Apr 2, 2016 #1
    I Have a Dumb Question. If Electricity Supplied from Substation to Feeder to Transformer and Under Transformer If There Are Many Consumers. Assuming That many Consumers Went on for a Holiday, Does Utility Still Pay for the Electricity to the Generation company for the Electricity they Supplied?

    Technically, what had happened to electricity which was passed till transformer? Is it earthed?
     
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  3. Apr 2, 2016 #2

    anorlunda

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    The rate of energy produced is adjusted to match the rate on energy consumed (plus losses) all the time,

    On holidays, less is made and less is used.
     
  4. Apr 2, 2016 #3
    But how ???
    the generator company had already sent the electricity. Am i missing something here?
     
  5. Apr 2, 2016 #4
    What I understand it the generation company continues to send standard electricity say 10MW, whether the down stream systems use it or not. Electricity is already produced it can not be taken back or stored
     
  6. Apr 2, 2016 #5

    anorlunda

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  7. Apr 3, 2016 #6
    Yes ..I have read the link you have indicated

    Assuming if they opt for DAM, assuming utility orders 5MW for that day and for a argument sake assume that many people went for vacation. And the consumer level only 2 MW. So what happens to the 3 MW..i think utility steel needs to pay for 5MW

    Still i am missing somrhing? I am sorry i am not an electrical engineer. It may be stupid question to you

    i am trying to understand Demand Response concepts

    demand_response_chart.jpg

    1 day: The Day-Ahead-Market (DAM)

    Reference https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/what-happens-when-you-flip-the-light-switch/
     
  8. Apr 3, 2016 #7

    anorlunda

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    Actually, that is a very good question. In your first post, you asked about earthing the excess power. Excess power is never generated.

    But now you make it clear that you are asking about payment. Yes, if the power plant contracts 100MW in the day-ahead market but only 95MW is needed in real time, he is still paid for 100. But consumers pay only for the energy they use.

    Where does the money come from four that 5MW difference? All power plants and all utilities contribute to a fund to pay for someone to run that DAM market. The money comes from that fund.

    Suppose the power plant sold 90MW in the DAM market but the next day 95 is needed. The extra 5MW are purchased on the real time RT market where prices may be different than DAM prices. The RT market is calculated every 15 minutes.

    The markets are motivated to be as accurate as possible in how much they buy in advance.

    Edit: demand response can be thought of as a negative way to balance load and generation. If an extra 10MW is needed, the market can pay a power plant to make 10 more, or it can pay demand response to demand 10 less. Demand response is not normally sold in the DAM but only in the RT market. The prices paid for demand response are much higher than power plant purchases. Therefore demand response is not used unless an emergency is near.
     
    Last edited: Apr 3, 2016
  9. Apr 3, 2016 #8

    sophiecentaur

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    This answer is a more elementary response to your question than the other posts and I think this is the answer you 'need': (It may not be so simple for a generator that's part of a network but we should get this straight first).
    On a basic level, that statement is wrong. Energy can only be dissipated in the Resistive Part of a Load. If the resistance is infinite (open circuit`) then no power can be supplied.. The 10MW that you quote is a maximum possible. No load and the generator will either speed up and jump off its bed or the regulation will kick in and limit the amount of fuel supplied to the amount needed to overcome the very small losses in the system.
    An easier equivalent would be a 13A plug, with the appliance switched off. The "13A" just refers to the current at which the fuse will blow. It is the Voltage of the supply, along with the resistance of the load that determine the power dissipated / transferred. Any 240V appliance can be fed from a 13A plug as long as it doesn't need more than 13A.
    The term "Electricity" that you use is not a Quantity. You mean Electrical Power (I think) and the amount of Power supplied will depend, as I said, above. on the generator volts and the load resistance. It's not like a chef who produces 10 pies per hour, which pile up on the counter if no one eats them. The chef only produces a pie if he has been asked for one and his maximum per hour is ten.
     
  10. Apr 3, 2016 #9

    russ_watters

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    The utility doesn't pre-purchase power and the generating company doesn't generate it willy-nilly. The grid's production is continuously adjusted to match the load. It has to be, otherwise, the generators wouldn't stay in sync and you'd have problems like voltage and frequency fluctuations. So, quite literally, if there is too much power being supplied to the grid, someone closes a valve on the dam and reduces its power output.

    The way this works in a market setting is with variable pricing. If the grid gets oversupplied, the value of the electricity drops, in real time, to the point where it becomes uneconomical to keep selling it, so the producers reduce their output. It is rare that there is ever a true surplus, but when that happens, the price can actually go negative (the electric company will pay customers to use electricity) or large suppliers that don't throttle well, like nuclear plants, can dump the excess heat into the atmosphere instead of using it to make electricity (can't find a reference for that, so I don't know how common it is).

    In some cases, power can be exported long distances, but here's an example of it being sold at a loss:
    http://business.financialpost.com/fp-comment/ontarios-power-trip-power-dumping

    Here's an incident with a negative price:
    http://cleantechnica.com/2015/10/01/texas-electricity-prices-going-negative/
    Wind power is particularly susceptible to negative pricing because unlike solar, it doesn't necessarily peak when the grid peaks.
     
  11. Apr 3, 2016 #10

    anorlunda

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  12. Apr 3, 2016 #11

    anorlunda

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    By the way, that statement is also wrong. The wholesale market participants are generators and utilities. Retail customers are insulated from that. When prices go negative, the generator pays the market, rather than being paid. Negative prices usually persist only for an hour or two.

    Retail customers pay rates to the electric company according to tariffs submitted by the utility and approved by the PUC. The tariff rates typically hold the prices constant for a year or two. Those rates are never negative.

    In other words, the wholesale market is much more volatile than the retail market.
     
  13. Apr 4, 2016 #12
    Let me explain me in simple terms

    Assuming that Utility consumer does have manual meters. Which means the meter reads are only captured every month and the difference of old reading and new reading is the consumption of the specific customer. And that particular customer is charged based on the tariff .

    Meaning Bill Amount = Number of units consumed * cost per unit

    So basically, you don not know the consumption of each customer on the hourly basis, or daily basis because they are manual meters

    Assume that there 100,000 such customer is some city. How do Utility calculate the total consumption would be? Per day how much electric they order? As per the below if a utility orders DAM of say 50MW, if customers consume only 40MW. Utility gets money for only 40MW usage from customers(ignore losses for a moment). but they have to pay for 50MW to utility is that right?

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    About 50% of energy is traded in long term (5-10 years) advance contracts, 40% in the DAM (day-ahead-market), and 10% in real time.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1. I am still not clear what happened to the electricity power of difference of 10 MW. The generator would have created by burning coal , or by hydro or nucelar etc. Or the power itself is not created in the first place?
    2. What if the consumption of customers go high. Say if they consume 60MW, will the generation company still supply the extra 10MW? (above and beyond what utility promised)
    3. With Manual meters we can't predict the real time energy. Is that right?
    4. DAM is not possible with manual meters. Is that right?

    Just assume that all 100,000 customers are equipped with smart meters and smart meters sends consumption data every 15 minutes, we can order the energy as per DAM and real-time . This way utility saves money. Is my understanding correct?
     
  14. Apr 4, 2016 #13

    russ_watters

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    Yeah, I knew that wasn't really right after I said it -- I was trying to find a way to say that electric companies don't just run their generators willy-nilly because they already sold the power. Contracts or not, they constantly adjust their output.
     
  15. Apr 4, 2016 #14

    russ_watters

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    The utility company does not have to just guess ahead of time and live with the guess: the generators feel the load. Look at the graph on the right, halfway down the page, where it says "real time statistics":
    http://www.pjm.com/
    Again, such a thing never happens. They are constantly adjusting (well...10MW isn't much, so there may be fluctuations of that amount...).
    Right.
    Yes, but they can feel the real time load.
     
  16. Apr 4, 2016 #15

    sophiecentaur

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    . . . . . and that load will only consume what it wants. The 'system' cannot supply any more than that - in whatever way the input is shared by all the generators. I have been interpreting the thread title in that way, rather than including interactions within the grid.
    If someone can, somehow, insist on supplying an additional 10MW when the system is in a steady state, then someone else has to supply 10MW less. That has to be obvious, doesn't it?
     
  17. Apr 4, 2016 #16
    If I understand correctly, i a very lay man's terms as soon as switch on the bulb in the bed room the demand information all the way propagated to transformer to Feeder to transmission lines to Generation station . Is that right?
    This way Generator know how much to produce in the output and supply
    Sorry - But still my question is, the extra resources are already used like coal, nuclear etc. I know they are controlling output

    On the commercial front, if utility could not predict the consumption correctly they end up paying more to Generator company and losing the money. Kindly confirm my understanding. So smart meters is the way to predict real time demand. Correct me if i am wrong
     
    Last edited: Apr 4, 2016
  18. Apr 4, 2016 #17

    sophiecentaur

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    Yes. I get your point. There is always a time lag between a change in load and the generator output. There is some 'slop' / 'inertia' in the system that will allow, for instance, the steam pressure in the boilers to build up over a short time before the rate of fuel supply is adjusted. In the whole network, there are generators with fast responses (gas turbines, for example) and they will react faster and reduce their output quickly. If there is not enough fast adjustment available, the generators would all speed up and some of the unwanted input energy will turn up as kinetic energy of rotation. Also, the other loads will experience a higher voltage so they will dissipate more power. Likewise, a massive increase in load can result in the generators slowing down, the volts reducing and everyone's lights going dim - until they feed more coal / fuel into the boilers etc..
    I remember talking to a guy (wayyy back) who was doing a study into dumping the power produced by a nuclear power station, in the event of the (single) grid supply line being damaged. Nuclear Power stations are the slowest to respond to controls and you could get melt down (apparently) if a load is suddenly removed. The solution being studied was to use massive motors for a pump storage system into a lake in nearby mountains.
    So your question is very valid and it can be a serious problem. :smile:
    Our PF friends with more practical knowledge of these things can probably give you more (an infinite amount of) info on this. I think it may be a time to cue Jim ???
     
  19. Apr 4, 2016 #18
    For a fully supply and demand electical market, it can work the same way as any financial market, so that risk is spread out amongst the players.
    Not all power generation and utility servicing regions operate under such a market, as there may be controls in place from the government as in any industry.
    To protect themselves from fluctuations in demand and supply, and the resulting fluctuations in price in a market, a secondary market consisting of hedges and options appears.
    See,
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedge_(finance [Broken])
    Sme examples.
    1. Producer and utility may contract at a price and volume of energy delivered, with an option for the utility to purchase x amount more at the same or different price.
    2. A "ceiling" price is agreed upon for x amount of product. If the spot price is above the ceiling the producer pays the buyer the difference. If the spot is below the spot price, the purchaser pays the producer.
    3. A clearinghouse would be set up to coordinate the financial transactions between the players if there are many producers and buyers. With an area with only one producer and one utility transactions would be necessarily in both's favour. Neither would want to put the other out of business, jeopardizinng their own viability.

    So evaluation of risk factor, and the people employed by the companies had better take that into account when buying and selling a product.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 7, 2017
  20. Apr 4, 2016 #19

    anorlunda

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    You are re-asking the same questions answered and confirmed in earlier posts.

    The answers to all your questions are all in the insights articles.
    https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/what-happens-when-you-flip-the-light-switch/
    https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/ac-power-analysis-part-2-network-analysis/

    The instantaneous unbalance between generation and load becomes rate of change of frequency. Frequency is the feedback signal used to adjust generation, not smart meters. It has worked that way since 1889.
     
  21. Apr 4, 2016 #20
    Do smart meters show electrical power usage?
    The utility bills you for energy consumption.

    The time lag between the smart meter reading and the demand curve for the power stations just isn't there. The utility company can use meter reading to see trends horly, daily, monthly, yearly, to set up the major portion of how much electricty they should buy, but since no-one can predict mother nature it really isn't all that much use in the spot market.
     
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