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I wonder what temperature really is.

I have learned that temperature comes from the fact that atoms vibrate.

But in plasma physics it can be related to the actual speed of particles.

So what is temperature?

It was interesting and educational to read the new thread regarding heat capacity but I think my question requires a new thread.

By the way, is there anything wrong with the following calculation of the sun's temperature (considering the sun's radiation being isotropic):

[tex]I_s=\frac{P}{S_s}=\frac{P}{4\pi R_s^2}=k*T_s[/tex]

[tex]I_e=\frac{P}{4\pi (AU)^2}=k*T_e[/tex]

[tex]T_s=T_e*\frac{I_s}{I_e}=T_e*(\frac{AU}{R_s})^2=300*(\frac{1,5*10^{11}}{700*10^6})^2=14MK[/tex]

I really am not sure what I have calculated but wikipedia says that the sun core temperature is some 16MK. Which is pretty close even though I was aiming at the sun's surface temperature...

Best regards, Roger