Hello there, I'm by no means a philosophy student but I plan on majoring it in college . Anyway, I was killing some time, waiting for my introductory books to arrive, by playing with my 8 year old little sister. Well, she asked me this very interesting question. "Phusicist, when a chinese person thinks in his head, is it in chinese?" I replied, "Ummmm, probably" and then she volleyed, "What if he came here and talked in english more, would he still think in chinese?". This prompted me to ask a few questions of my own. With all this talk about language, I deduced that thinking, or at least abstract/complex thinking must have something to do with manipulating (So thinking should be intertwined with working memory too) linguistically defined concepts (I separate thinking from abstract thinking because when we drink something we usually don't say, "Hmmm I am thirsty, being thirsty is unpleasant, if I drink x I will not be thirsty, so I will drink x" we usually do this instinctively, maybe we use emotions as shortcuts in reasoning?). It seems possible that simple thoughts can exist without language, but it's very unlikely that complex ideas such as those in philosophy or math could. Other groups of people with more primitive languages must have trouble with thinking and this must hinder overall progress! For example, Filipinos don’t have the verb to be in their language! Then I thought, what if someone does not learn any language at all, are they incapable of abstract thinking? What would it be like to peak inside their mind? Maybe the answer lies in feral children? http://www.feralchildren.com/en/index.php So, what is thinking? I'm also curious because I always see philosophy introductions mention that philosophy can make your thinking clearer, how so? Well, philosophy definitely improves linguistic ability and semantic reasoning, so these alone would be a way I think.