What makes a psychopath?

  • #26
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Jenn_ucsb said:
Look up an article called "Psychophysiological, Somatic, and Affective Changes Across the Menstrual Cycle in Women With Panic Disorder".
This one?:
  • Author
    Sigmon, Sandra T; Dorhofer, Diana M; Rohan, Kelly J; Hotovy, Lisa A; Boulard, Nina E; Fink, Christine M.

    Institution
    U Maine, Dept of Psychology, Orono, ME, US, 1.

    Title
    Psychophysiological, somatic, and affective changes across the menstrual cycle in women with panic disorder.

    Source
    Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. Vol 68(3) Jun 2000, 425-431.
    American Psychological Assn, US

    Publisher URL
    http://www.apa.org [Broken]

    Journal URL
    http://www.apa.org/journals/ccp.html [Broken]

    ISSN
    0022-006X (Print)

    Language
    English

    Abstract
    This study explored menstrual symptoms, somatic focus, negative affect, and psychophysiological responding across the menstrual cycle in women with panic disorder and controls. Women with and without panic disorder completed a psychophysiological task and self-report measures of menstrual symptoms, somatic focus, and negative affect on 4 occasions across 2 menstrual cycles (twice during intermenstrual and premenstrual phases). Women in the panic disorder group exhibited greater skin conductance magnitude and more frequent skin conductance responses to anxiety-provoking stimuli during the premenstrual phase than did controls. Compared to controls, women with panic disorder endorsed more severe menstrual symptoms relating to bodily sensations, anxiety sensitivity, state and trait anxiety, fear of body sensations, and illness-related concerns. The applicability of anxiety sensitivity to understanding the relation of menstrual reactivity and panic disorder is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

    Key Concepts
    symptoms & somatic focus & negative affect & psychophysiological responding across menstrual cycle, females (mean age 29.63 yrs) with panic disorder

    Subject Headings
    *Emotional States
    *Menstrual Cycle
    *Panic Disorder
    *Symptoms
    *Somatization
    Human Females
    Psychophysiology

    Classification Code
    Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders [3215]

    Population Group
    Human; Female. Adulthood (18 yrs & older).

    Form/Content Type
    Empirical Study.

    Special Feature
    References; Peer Reviewed.

    Publication Type
    Journal Article

    Publication Year
    2000

    Number of Cited References
    Number Of Citations: 39, Number of Citations Displayed: 38

    Cited References
    (1) American Psychiatric Association. (1987).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
    (2) Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
    (3) Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A. & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77-100.[Reference Link]
    (4) Borden, J. W. & Lister, S. C. (1994). The anxiety sensitivity construct: Cognitive reactions to physiological change. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8, 311-321.[Reference Link]
    (5) Boyle, G. J. & Grant, A. F. (1992). Prospective versus retrospective assessment of menstrual cycle symptoms and moods: Role of attitudes and beliefs. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14, 307-321.[Reference Link]
    (6) Brooks, J., Ruble, D. & Clark, A. (1977). College women's attitudes and expectations concerning menstrual-related changes. Psychosomatic Medicine, 39, 288-298.[Reference Link]
    (7) Cameron, O. G., Kuttesch, D., McPhee, K. & Curtis, G. C. (1988). Menstrual fluctuation in the symptoms of panic anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15, 169-174.
    (8) Chambless, D. L., Caputo, G. C., Bright, P. & Gallagher, R. (1984). Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: The Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 1090-1097.[Reference Link]
    (9) Clark, D. M., Salkovskis, P. M., Öst, L. -G., Breitholtz, E., Koehler, K. A., Westling, B. E., Jeavons, A. & Gelder, M. (1997). Misinterpretation of bodily sensations in panic disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 203-213.[Reference Link]
    (10) Cook, B. L., Noyes, R., Garvey, M. J., Beach, V., Sobotka, J. & Chaudhry, D. (1990). Anxiety and the menstrual cycle in panic disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 19, 221-226.[Reference Link]
    (11) DiNardo, P. A., Barlow, D. H., Cerny, J., Vermilyea, B. B., Vermilyea, J. A., Himadi, W. & Waddell, M. (1985). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Revised (ADIS-R). Albany: State University of New York, Phobia and Anxiety Disorders Clinic.
    (12) DiNardo, P. A., Moras, K., Barlow, D. H., Rapee, R. M. & Brown, T. A. (1993). Reliability of DSM-III-R anxiety disorders categories using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Revised (ADIS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 251-256.[Reference Link]
    (13) Dow, R. (1991) PSYLAB [Computer software]. London, United Kingdom: Contact Precision Instruments. Dow, R. (1991) PSYLAB [Computer software]. London, United Kingdom: Contact Precision Instruments.
    (14) Kaspi, S. P., Otto, M. W., Pollack, M. H., Eppinger, S. & Rosenbaum, J. F. (1994). Premenstrual exacerbation of symptoms in women with panic disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8, 131-138.[Reference Link]
    (15) Kellner, R., Abbott, P., Winslow, W. W. & Pathak, D. (1987). Fears, beliefs, and attitudes in DSM-III hypochondriasis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 20-25.[Reference Link]
    (16) Kellner, R., Slocumb, J. C., Wiggins, R. J., Abbott, P. J., Romanik, R. L., Winslow, W. W. & Pathak, D. (1987). The relationship of hypochondriacal fears and beliefs to anxiety and depression. Psychiatric Medicine, 4, 15-24.
    (17) Klebanov, P. K. & Jemmott, J. B. (1992). Effects of expectations and bodily sensations on self-reports of premenstrual symptoms. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16, 289-310.[Reference Link]
    (18) Maller, R. G. & Reiss, S. (1992). Anxiety sensitivity in 1984 and panic attacks in 1987. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 6, 241-247.[Reference Link]
    (19) McFarland, C., Ross, M. & DeCourville, N. (1989). Women's theories of menstruation and biases in recall of menstrual symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 522-531.[Reference Link]
    (20) McNair, D. M., Lorr, M. & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). EDITS manual for the Profile of Mood States. San Diego, CA: EDITS.
    (21) Metcalf, M. G. & Hudson, S. M. (1985). The premenstrual syndrome: Selection of women for pretreatment trials. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 631-638.[Reference Link]
    (22) Moos, R. H. (1969). The development of a Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 853-867.[Reference Link]
    (23) Moos, R. H. (1985). Perimenstrual symptoms: A manual and overview of research with the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. Stanford, CA: Author.
    (24) Norton, G. R., Dorward, J. & Cox, B. J. (1986). Factors associated with panic attacks in nonclinical subjects. Behavior Therapy, 17, 239-252.[Reference Link]
    (25) Peterson, R. A. & Heilbronner, R. L. (1987). The Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Construct validity and factor analytic structure. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 1, 117-121.[Reference Link]
    (26) Reiss, S. & McNally, R. J. (1985). The expectancy model of fear. Theoretical issues in behavior therapy (pp. 107-122). In S. Reiss & R. R. Bootzin (Eds.), New York: Academic Press.
    (27) Reiss, S., Peterson, R. A., Gursky, D. M. & McNally, R. J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency, and the prediction of fearfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 1-8.[Reference Link]
    (28) Schmidt, N. B., Lerew, D. R. & Jackson, R. J. (1997). The role of anxiety sensitivity in the pathogenesis of panic: Prospective evaluation of spontaneous panic attacks during acute stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 355-364.[Reference Link]
    (29) Schmidt, N. B., Lerew, D. R. & Trakowski, J. H. (1997). Body vigilance in panic disorder: Evaluating attention to bodily perturbations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 214-220.[Reference Link]
    (30) Shostak, B. B. & Peterson, R. A. (1990). Effects of anxiety sensitivity on emotional response to a stress task. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 513-521.[Reference Link]
    (31) Sigmon, S. T., Dorhofer, D. M., Rohan, K. J. & Boulard, N. E. (in press). The impact of anxiety sensitivity, bodily expectations, and cultural beliefs on menstrual symptom reporting: A test of the menstrual reactivity hypothesis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders.
    (32) Sigmon, S. T., Fink, C. M., Rohan, K. J. & Hotovy, L. A. (1996). Anxiety sensitivity and menstrual cycle reactivity: Psychophysiological and self-report differences. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 10, 393-410.[Reference Link]
    (33) Spielberger, C. D. (1988). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Dictionary of behavioral techniques (pp. 448-450). In M. Hersen & A. S. Bellack (Eds.), New York: Pergamon Press.
    (34) Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L. & Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    (35) Stein, M. B., Schmidt, P. J., Rubinow, D. R. & Uhde, T. W. (1989). Panic disorder and the menstrual cycle: Panic disorder patients, healthy control subjects, and patients with premenstrual syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1299-1303.[Reference Link]
    (36) Taylor, S. (1995). Anxiety sensitivity: Theoretical perspectives and recent findings. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 243-258.[Reference Link]
    (37) Taylor, S. & Cox, B. J. (1998). Anxiety sensitivity: Multiple dimensions and hierarchic structure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 37-51.[Reference Link]
    (38) Taylor, S., Koch, W. J. & McNally, R. J. (1992). How does anxiety sensitivity vary across the anxiety disorders? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 6, 249-259.[Reference Link]
 
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  • #27
921
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Jenn_ucsb said:
Just in case you can't find that article, try this one:
Hecker. J., et al. (1998)Cognitive Restructuring and Interoceptive Exposure in the Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Crossover Study. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy.26, 115-131.
This one also cites the DSM as its very first reference.
Unfortunately, PsycINFO doesn't list any of the references for this paper. The complete reference simply says:

  • Author
    Hecker, Jeffrey E; Fink, Christine M; Vogeltanz, Nancy D; Thorpe, Geoffery L; Sigmon, Sandra T.

    Institution
    U Maine, Dept of Psychology, Orono, ME, US, 1.

    Title
    Cognitive restructuring and interoceptive exposure in the treatment of panic disorder: A crossover study.

    Source
    Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy. Vol 26(2) 1998, 115-131.
    Cambridge Univ Press, US

    Publisher URL
    http://www.journals.cup.org

    Journal URL
    http://uk.cambridge.org/journals/bcp/

    ISSN
    1352-4658 (Print)

    Language
    English

    Abstract
    The relative efficacy of cognitive restructuring and interoceptive exposure procedures for the treatment of panic disorder, as well as the differential effects of the order of these interventions, was studied. 18 clients with panic disorder were seen for 4 sessions of exposure therapy and 4 sessions of cognitive therapy in a crossover design study. Half of the participants received exposure therapy followed by cognitive therapy and for half the order was reversed. There was a 1-month follow-up period between the 2 interventions and after the second intervention. Questionnaire measures and independent clinician ratings were used to assess outcome. Participants expected greater benefit from cognitive therapy, but tended to improve to a similar degree with either intervention. The order in which treatments were presented did not influence outcome. Participants tended to improve with the first intervention and maintain improvement across the follow-up periods and subsequent intervention. Several methodological limitations qualify the conclusions that can be drawn from this study. These limitations, as well as some conceptual and methodological challenges of conducting this type of research, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

    Key Concepts
    cognitive restructuring & interoceptive exposure, 22-62 yr olds with panic disorder

    Subject Headings
    *Cognitive Restructuring
    *Exposure Therapy
    *Panic Disorder

    Classification Code
    Cognitive Therapy [3311]

    Population Group
    Human; Male; Female. Adulthood (18 yrs & older); Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs); Thirties (30-39 yrs); Middle Age (40-64 yrs).

    Location
    US

    Form/Content Type
    Empirical Study.

    Special Feature
    References; Peer Reviewed.

    Publication Type
    Journal Article

    Publication Year
    1998

    Update Code
    19980901

    Media Type
    Print (Paper)
 
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  • #28
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9
Thank you hitssquad. How very kind of you.
 
  • #29
5
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Adam, your view of research is a tad scewed. How exactly do you research something without classifying it first? I read your link when you first posted it. This has become an inefficient use of my time, and I am wondering why I am continuing to respond at all, as I am getting nowhere. It seems that you are not seeking the truth. You are merely seeking to argue. I have noticed this behavior on your behalf on other threads. I have no reason to need you to listen to me. So, I'll part with this advice...go talk to a prof that researches psychopathology for a living, and ask them if the DSM is involved in the research process. Or don't...
 
  • #30
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Research is learning. Finding new data. Experimentation, surveying, polling, et cetera. Saying that using the DSM is research because it shows you the right words to use when writing your report is like saying the English dictionary is a research tool for the precise same reason. Might as well cite the Oxford English dictionary after the use of every English word. Although an over-the-top example, it is precisely the same mechanic at work.
 
  • #31
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they are unable to make any distinction between objective and subjective enviroment or reality. To them, it is only 'their' reality, they do not participate with us but plot against us.

They also always fail eventualy due to this error in their mental makeup.
World Leaders, anyone? :eek:
 
  • #32
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Moonrat said:
they are unable to make any distinction between objective and subjective enviroment or reality. To them, it is only 'their' reality, they do not participate with us but plot against us.

They also always fail eventualy due to this error in their mental makeup.
World Leaders, anyone? :eek:
Someone can jump in and make everything clearer. Someone has such an ability by his long long long but little and short meanings related to the main topic. such posts are considered good because they contain so much information.
Moon rat, if you get there to cooperate with them, you might get profits in the end by being able to be loved by another male rat. :p
 
  • #33
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toloXXX said:
Oh, forgot to say, i am a world leader :p

-Wicked cruel purple-

Oh so your speaking from experiance?
:tongue:
 
  • #34
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Psychiatrists are the bottom-feeders of the medical profession.
 
  • #35
selfAdjoint
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FBI's conclusion on Columbine: http://slate.msn.com/id/2099203/ [Broken]
 
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  • #36
marcus
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selfAdjoint said:
FBI's conclusion on Columbine: http://slate.msn.com/id/2099203/ [Broken]

this is especially instructive because it reports a process of real people diagnosing a real person----with some uncertainty and the mess that goes along with reality

Harris was good at apologizing! He wrote a sympathetic letter to someone he was caught trying to rob, that sounds like sincere remorse, but his diary at the same time shows contempt and sense of entitlement and superiority. It is interesting. Here is some bits from the article:

----quote---
"In popular usage, almost any crazy killer is a "psychopath." But in psychiatry, it's a very specific mental condition that rarely involves killing, or even psychosis. "Psychopaths are not disoriented or out of touch with reality, nor do they experience the delusions, hallucinations, or intense subjective distress that characterize most other mental disorders," writes Dr. Robert Hare, in Without Conscience, the seminal book on the condition. (Hare is also one of the psychologists consulted by the FBI about Columbine and by Slate for this story*.) "Unlike psychotic individuals, psychopaths are rational and aware of what they are doing and why. Their behavior is the result of choice, freely exercised." Diagnosing Harris as a psychopath represents neither a legal defense, nor a moral excuse. But it illuminates a great deal about the thought process that drove him to mass murder.

Diagnosing him as a psychopath was not a simple matter. Harris opened his private journal with the sentence, "I hate the f---ing world." And when the media studied Harris, they focused on his hatred—hatred that supposedly led him to revenge. It's easy to get lost in the hate, which screamed out relentlessly from Harris' Web site:....

...It rages on for page after page and is repeated in his journal and in the videos he and Klebold made. But Fuselier recognized a far more revealing emotion bursting through, both fueling and overshadowing the hate. What the boy was really expressing was contempt.

He is disgusted with the morons around him. These are not the rantings of an angry young man, picked on by jocks until he's not going to take it anymore. These are the rantings of someone with a messianic-grade superiority complex, out to punish the entire human race for its appalling inferiority. It may look like hate, but "It's more about demeaning other people," says Hare.

A second confirmation of the diagnosis was Harris' perpetual deceitfulness..."
--------end quote----
 
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  • #37
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selfAdjoint said:
FBI's conclusion on Columbine: http://slate.msn.com/id/2099203/ [Broken]
Jenn-ucsb is right, though. What used to be called psychopathy, sociopathy or dysocial personality disorder, is now officially called Antisocial Personality Disorder. It's funny to see this FBI expert using the old fashioned term.
 
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  • #38
marcus
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zoobyshoe said:
Jenn-ucsb is right, though. What used to be called psychopathy, sociopathy or dysocial personality disorder, is now officially called Antisocial Personality Disorder. It's funny to see this FBI expert using the old fashioned term.

Dear taxpayer your child was just shot and killed at school by an Antisocial Personality Disorder or, as we in the profession might say, a severe case of "APD"...
 
  • #39
selfAdjoint
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Harris himself used the term of art "Natural Born Killer". Which of course assumes an aetiology that hasn't yet been proven.
 
  • #40
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marcus said:
Dear taxpayer your child was just shot and killed at school by an Antisocial Personality Disorder or, as we in the profession might say, a severe case of "APD"...
"Dear taxpayer your child was just shot and killed at school by a psychopath."

Hmmm. Doesn't seem to me the problem with this note is the terminology used, either way.

Your point seems to be, however, that if this FBI representative spoke to the public and media using the currently designated medical term for this condition, the media and public would find it to be too neutral considering the outrageousness of this killing spree. Is that what you were indicating?
 
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  • #41
selfAdjoint
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It seems to me that the point is not so much to "speak to the public" but to understand the conditions, with the hope and aim of detecting future killers before they kill. In that context, the least disturbing name possible is preferable. "Dr. Principal, we have detected that one of your students suffers from APD and is at risk for murdering people."
 
  • #42
Isn't this a little disturbing though? We are trusting psychiatrists to be what Laing called an elite police force i.e. to judge whether someone is morally sound or not (APD used to be called 'moral insanity'). Thus: "Dear Mrs Wilson, you son has passed his SATs but failed his DSM. He shows signs of nascent APD and will be removed to a special school for the potentially criminal for the rest of his (un)natural life. Yours etc."

I've heard that if you gave a risk taker e.g. fireman the MMPI-2 (like the DSM, designed for use with clinical populations) they would likely be diagnosed with APD. Can someone enlighten me on this point, please?
 
  • #43
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I don't know about your example of firemen and the MMPI, but there's research showing that individuals with APD are a plus in combat units, although you don't don't don't want all of the soldiers in a unit to have APD.

The original MMPI was calibrated on Minnesota farmers during the 1940's, not on college students.
 
  • #44
Sounds about right. I don't suppose empathy is a plus when it comes to bayonets etc.

Re: normative data from farmers, I have cheated and looked up the original MMPI manual. Apparently there were 250 precollege & college students, as well as an older group supposedly representitive of a cross section of the Minnesota population, giving a total of 950.

But get this: in the Handbook of Psychological Assessment (Groth-Marnat 1997, p.245), it says (referring to the updated MMPI-2) that "Normal persons who are graduate students in the humanities and social sciences often have somewhat elevated scores" on the Psychopathic Deviate scale! Ahh! At least it doesn't mean I'm mad, technically, just bad and dangerous to know! Also "normal persons who are extraverted, risk takers, and have unconventional lifestyles (skydivers, police officers, actors) are also likely to have somewhat elevated" scores.

I think it just shows you have to be a bit careful in labelling people, especially with terms like 'psychopathic deviate', or even PC terms like APD. I recall that a few years ago the UK goverment were trying to make it law that people with APD would be sectioned whether they had committed a crime or not (or something similar). This sounds okay if it means keeping potential murderers off the streets, but not if it means locking up all the social sciences graduates, skydivers, policemen (!) and actors. With the possible exception of Arnold Schwarzenegger.
 
  • #45
selfAdjoint
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I wonder why they limited themselves to grad students on the MMPI-1 update? The test has been severely criticised as not properly calibrated for various urban populations, you would have thought they'd try to cover that. Money, I supose?
 
  • #46
I doubt money is a problem for these guys. They charge a small fortune to use their materials.

But the thing that is worrying is that a lot of people swear by 'top-brand' tests like the MMPIs. And once you get branded APD, even momma aint gonna wanna know ya, even if you do have a social sciences degree.

But I'd like to make clear that I am all for the DSM, MMPI etc; its just that I get itchy when people seem to slip into the lazy habit of treating profiles as if they are the infallible truth. And we all know that only tarot readings are infallible (stir stir).
 
  • #47
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selfAdjoint said:
I wonder why they limited themselves to grad students on the MMPI-1 update? The test has been severely criticised as not properly calibrated for various urban populations, you would have thought they'd try to cover that. Money, I supose?

Yep, you guessed it. Money (and laziness). Clinical and counseling psych grad students usually are asked to take the MMPI as part of their assessment training, particularly in Minnesota ;) . Their scores are confidential, but used for free research. Everyone benefits...kinda.
 

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