after a neutron star goes into hypernovae how much mass is lost?
Unknown as yet. If all the mass of the star(s) causing the hypernova is converted to e then the answer is that all the mass is lost. If there is any remnant, like a black hole, then all the mass except for the remnant is lost, but that would vary in each and every case depending on the dynamics of that particular hypernova.
hello Labguy I agree with each and every statement here
I also remember hearing a wild rough estimate by a GRB researcher that he guessed commonly at least 10 percent of the collapsing mass was converted to energy
it is a heck of a lot of mass to be suddenly converted to radiation and obviously results in a whopping burst of radiation
I didnt read your link, maybe it tells more
Do we have to rush things so much - I'm still trying to come to terms with the supernovae and now you hit me with a problem concerning the hypernovae. You can't have all your kebabs and eat them too.
PINKLINE JONES a.l.s.c.
what causes a hypernova?
Nobody really knows what cause Hypernovae bursts.
It has been suggested that the sudden collapse of “super-massive stars” produce Hypernovae bursts, and that enigmas such as smaller Black Holes are remnants of such events.
A concentrated “56 Cloud” (Iron) is apparently ejected just after the initial collapse (a few years), which is followed up by an incredibly concentrated gamma ray burst. The gamma ray burst seems to be the key in it all…
Labguys links are very good in explaining this new field.
Could it be much more advanced civilizations fighting a war?
Super massive stars collapses into a black hole and its jets are pointed toward Earth are what create GRBs.
"The Milky Way Galaxy to be about 100,000 light-years in diameter". If there was a hypernova inside our galaxy would it wipe us out? What would be the minimum distance for survival? I realize it would depend on the size of the gamma ray burst. So knowing what is the smallest star that could collapse and explode into a hypernova, what is that distance?
Thanks looking for your answer.
I'm sure that there must have been Hypernova in our galaxy since it formed, but I'm not aware of any Hypernova remnants yet being found in the Milky Way.
Distance would matter for sure, but I have no idea which "candidate stars" are close enough to us to ruin our day. From the 5th link I posted it gives just one scenario, but at a very close 300 light years:
"What would happen if a hypernovae occurred near Earth?
Here, 'near' is a relative term. 300 light years (almost 10,000 billion kilometres) is close enough for it to appear 1,000,000 times brighter than the sun. The destruction would be total: it would be like 1 million 1-megaton hydrogen bombs going off all over the world at once. That is very approximately 100 times the entire world's nuclear arsenal.
The first thing that would happen would be that the enormous heat would convert the nitrogen in the upper atmosphere to nitrous oxides. This would destroy the ozone layer that protects us from ultra violet light. Then the rest of the atmosphere would become superheated. It would be like Hiroshima all over the world. This would also trigger other forms of destruction: the high temperatures would cause cyclones, tsunamis and hurricanes all over the Earth.
An electro-magnetic pulse would also hit. If enough energy is released without there being matter to absorb it, it is converted to electro-magnetic energy. The size of the pulse from a hypernova would instantly destroy every electronic circuit on one half of the Earth.
The effect on the earth would be identical to a microwave. Invisible and silent rays would roast the atmosphere. If you were deep underground you could survive all this. But then what? All the plants and livestock would have burnt to death and going outside would be impossible because with no ozone layer, our own sun would continually bombard us with harmful rays. Most importantly of all, all the algae would die. Algae are tiny organism that produce most of the Earth's oxygen and are at the bottom of the food chain. With these dead, what life remained on Earth would slowly starve or choke to death. Earth would become a scorched, dead, uninhabitable planet.
There is absolutely no defence to any of this. We wouldn't even see it coming, as the gamma rays travel at the speed of light so the first time we detected them would be when they hit us."
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