# What resistance is in terms of electrons

• huh!
In summary: This is an important concept that we will use throughout the course.In summary, resistance is the measure of how difficult it is for electrons to pass through a material. It is affected by the width and length of the material, as well as the number of electrons that can pass through it. However, the shape of the material does not affect the ease or difficulty for electrons to pass through it. Ohm's law states that for a given voltage, fewer electrons will pass through a resistor in a given amount of time, resulting in a higher resistance. This concept is important to understand as it is used throughout the course.
huh!
please can someone explain to me what resistance is in terms of electrons please please I am so stuck!

i understand what affects it the width of wire and length etc but i don't understand why it is that the electrons find it harder or easier to pass through!

Last edited:
huh! said:
please can someone explain to me what resistance is in terms of electrons please please I am so stuck!

i understand what affects it the width of wire and length etc but i don't understand why it is that the electrons find it harder or easier to pass through!
Well imagine two pieces of copper wire. One is 20mm thick and the other is 20m thick (just exmaples remember).

Let us take the diameter of the electron to be 5.64 x 10-15 m. The number of electrons that can pass along the wire next to each other is:

- for the 20mm thick wire = $$\frac{20 \times 10^-3 \ m}{5.64 x 10^{-15} \ m}$$ = 3.55 x 1012 electrons.

- for the 20mm thick wire = $$\frac{20 \ m}{5.64 x 10^{-15} \ m}$$ = 3.55 x 1015 electrons.

More electrons can pass in a 20m thick wire than in a 20mm thick wire. This means the resistance of the 20m thick wire is less than that of the 20mm thick wire.

Now imagine two pieces of copper wire. Both are 20mm thick but one is 20m thick and the other is 200m thick (just exmaples remember). It will take longer for an electron to travel 200m than 20m.

This means the resistance of the 20m long wire is less than that of the 200m long wire.

Does this make more sense now or do I need to do some more exampling?

The Bob (2004 ©)

The Bob,

You just made all that up, right?

jdavel said:
The Bob,

You just made all that up, right?
By the way you are sounding serious, yes. It is just one way to imagine it, or am I being stupid?

The Bob (2004 ©)

P.S. Nuts I feel bad now.

The Bob,

You're not being stupid, you're just uninformed.

The question by huh! was why electrons find it "harder" or "easier" to pass through a thin vs thick wire or a long vs short wire. The quick answer is, they don't. The shape of a wire has nothing to do with how easy or hard it is for the conduction electrons to get through it. Your answers gave the impression that it does.

Ohm's law doesn't say that it's harder for the electrons to get through a higher resistance. It just says that for a given voltage, fewer electrons will enter or leave the resistor (in general, fewer will pass some arbitrary point) in a given amount of time. Thin wires have fewer electrons per unit length, so for a given voltage, you get fewer of them passing in a given time. So the resistance is greater. In a long wire the voltage drop is spread over a longer distance, so the field that makes the electrons move is weaker, so the electrons don't go as fast. So for a given voltage you get less electrons passing in a given time. Again, greater resistance.

At extermely high voltages, this simple model breaks down. But as long as V = IR, you don't have to worry about the electrons crowding in a thin wire, or that they have a greater distance to go in a long wire.

jdavel said:
You're not being stupid, you're just uninformed.
This is where a hole in my knowledge has now been filled.

Thank you very, very much.

The Bob (2004 ©)

Thank you that makes a lot more sense than that of the books i was using and sites i was using to research it!

Resistance ... is ... useless.

DaveC426913 said:
Resistance ... is ... useless.

I thought it was futile. Oh well...

huh! said:
Thank you that makes a lot more sense than that of the books i was using and sites i was using to research it!
Make sure you understand jdavel's post completely. This is an important fundamental concept that is often misunderstood. If there's even some trivial detail that does not seem completely specified, do not hesitate to clarify.

## What is resistance?

Resistance is a measure of the opposition to the flow of electrons through a material. It is caused by collisions between the electrons and the atoms of the material.

## How is resistance measured?

Resistance is measured in units called ohms (Ω) and can be calculated using Ohm's law, which states that resistance is equal to the voltage divided by the current.

## What factors affect resistance?

The three main factors that affect resistance are the material of the conductor, its cross-sectional area, and its length. Temperature can also affect resistance, as some materials have a higher resistance at higher temperatures.

## How does resistance impact electrical circuits?

Resistance impacts electrical circuits by reducing the amount of current that can flow through them. This can cause a decrease in voltage and can also generate heat in the circuit due to the collisions between electrons and atoms.

## What are some examples of materials with high and low resistance?

Materials such as copper and silver have low resistance, while materials such as rubber and glass have high resistance. This is because copper and silver have a large number of free electrons that can easily flow through them, while rubber and glass have fewer free electrons and therefore impede the flow of current.

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