# Where does current go?

1. Jun 29, 2011

### gkangelexa

Current and charge do not increase or decrease or get used up when going through a wire or other device. The amount of charge that goes in at one end comes out at the other end.

Where does the current go then, when I run electrical devices? If it is not used up when I turn on a light bulb or use the TV, where does it go?

2. Jun 29, 2011

### SteamKing

Staff Emeritus
It's called a ground for a reason.

3. Jun 29, 2011

### Drakkith

Staff Emeritus
Current is the flow of charges (in this case Electrons) through the conductor. Like you said the amount of current is the same at the beginning and end of the circuit. The current (charges) never go anywhere, they are always there. Imagine you have a pipe of water with a water pump that pumps it around the pipe in a circle. The water never goes anywhere but around the pipe, but the pump has to perform work on the water to keep it flowing because of resistance.

If you increase the resistance of the pipe then you have less water flowing by a particular point per second than the pipe with less resistance. Similarly, increasing the resistance of the circuit causes less current to flow at all.

Depending on what you mean by ground, that could be mean that it is the return wire for the circuit or that it is the safety wire in a household circuit that only transmits current to ground in a fault situation.

4. Jun 29, 2011

### gkangelexa

So then what do electric companies charge you for? The voltage they provide that is necessary for the current?

5. Jun 29, 2011

### Drakkith

Staff Emeritus
They charge you because it takes work to produce electricity. To produce the voltage that determines the current in a circuit you have to use energy. Typically power plants use fossil fuels or nuclear power to heat water which then turns a steam turbine. The turbine turns a generator which produces the power. The key here is that when the generator is turning there is resistance to it. The more power drawn from the generator the greater the resistance to the generator turning and the more power has to be input to the generator. You are paying for the fuel, infrastructure, employees, ETC.

6. Jun 29, 2011

### DaveC426913

The work done. It does power your lights. Energy is flowing into your house as useful electricity and leaving as waste heat.

7. Jun 29, 2011

### pallidin

Yes it does. That's the whole idea.

8. Jun 29, 2011

### Staff: Mentor

No, it really doesn't. The current at any place in a continuous, brancless circuit is the same.

9. Jun 30, 2011

### pallidin

Uh, no. A resistive device within the circuit will reduce current flow.

10. Jun 30, 2011

### BobG

Current is the rate of flow.

In this case, the things that are moving (or flowing) are electrons (and the electrical charge associated with those electrons). In an electric circuit, especially if it's AC, those electrons aren't actually going anywhere - they're just moving around in your wires.

You're paying to have those electrons moved for you, not for the electrons. Just like in Drakkith's example, where the water is yours, but you're paying to run the pump that moves the water around for you.

11. Jun 30, 2011

### Drakkith

Staff Emeritus
Yes, the current throughout the circuit will be reduced, correct?
The current isn't going anywhere or being used up. There is simply less because of the resistance. I think thats what both of you are saying.

12. Jul 1, 2011

### pallidin

Well, it IS being used up, in a sense. It HAS to be, else one would have perpetual motion with infinite energy draw.
The key is "conversion" A specific amount of current flow is reduced, by conversion, to, say, heat or light. Thus there IS less current.

13. Jul 1, 2011

### phinds

No, the heat or light is produced by the work done at the power station in moving the electrons around the circuit loop. To get more current to produce a brighter light, the power station has to do more work. The current isn't used up at all. What's used is the work being done at the power station. That's what you are paying for (well, that and all those wires that the power company has to maintain).

14. Jul 1, 2011

### pallidin

I would confidently say that my 1500 watt electrical space heater is, in fact, initially reducing current at IT'S LOCATION, not the power station.
The "power station" must then ramp-up current flow to compensate for the losses at my space heater's location.
Thus the "bill"

Last edited: Jul 1, 2011
15. Jul 1, 2011

### Naty1

current is loosly bound electrons moving along from atom to atom in a conductor...they don't "disappear....

Perhaps what you are thinking about is energy (power)...THAT is what is being consumed by electrical appliances....electrons don't disappear in loads anymore than they are produced at generating devices.

16. Jul 1, 2011

### DrGreg

When your heater is switched off, there's zero current through it, so when it's switched on it's increasing the current, not reducing it. But it does cause a small drop in voltage, which the power station has to compensate for.

17. Jul 1, 2011

### pallidin

I never said or suggested that the actual electrons are "consumed"
Rather, what I am saying is that the energy during the event most cetainly is(rather converted) to heat, light, etc...
That event requires a reduction in current flow.

18. Jul 1, 2011

### Naty1

no.

where do you think the electrons go??

you have energy and current confused.

19. Jul 1, 2011

### pallidin

Look, it's very simple: Resistive devices in an electrical circuit DISSIPATE energy.
This action necessarily results in a quantifiable reduction in current flow.

20. Jul 1, 2011

### pallidin

OK, everyone. A reduction in electron "flow" DOES NOT in any way mean a loss of the specific electrons themselves...