By person, I mean experiencing being (there is subjective experience). If a person literally comes to exist from matter, then there's no way to distinguish these two situations: Situation 1 Person A arises from body A. Person B arises from body B. Situation 2 Person A arises from body B. Person B arises from body A. These two situations are actually the SAME if persons arise out of matter. But the two situations can be distinguished in reality. The person in body A, knows that the universe would be different if he was in body B, and the other guy was in body A. Perhaps the situation is indistinguishable to the outside world, but not to these two persons. The contradiction above leads me to believe, that the person must exist independently of the body (by body I include brain). The body may determine a person's behavior and the content of his experience, but the person is not the body itself.