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Consider a basic square loop with two coils wound on opposite sides from each other, with coil one excited while coil two si left open circuited. The total flux linking coil 1 is

Φ

_{11}= Φ

_{l1}+Φ

_{21}

where

Φ

_{11}is the total flux linking coil 1

Φ

_{l1}is the leakage flux and

Φ

_{21}is the mutual flux linking both coils

My question is why there is mutual flux if the second coil is open-circuited, in other words, why is Φ

_{21}non-zero? I would expect flux through the iron core due to coil one but how/why does coil two contribute to this flux?