The Newtonian view assumes instant communication of the gravitational field. In such a case, one could pose that the kinetic energy of all the matter in the universe speeding off in all directions is equally balanced by gravitational potential energy that would bind all matter together. I suppose this works when the universe was very close to the size of a singularity. However, the force of gravity travels at the limited speed of light by force cariers called gravitons. So by the time a graviton travels from one side of the universe to the particles on the other side, the particles on the other side have travelled even further away. I suppose this would make the gravitational force of a particle felt by particles on the other side of the universe seem weaker than in the pure Newtonian scheme. This is like slowly reducing the force of gravity as the universe expands. Wouldn't this have the tendency to make the particles fly apart more rapidly since you are slowly eliminating the opposition of gravity? Or at least it would insure that the universe expands forever. Right? If we throw in a particle horizon where some particles have not yet even felt the gravitational force of other particles very distant from us, this would contribute to expansion, maybe even acceleration. And if we also have an event horizon where more and more distant objects are accelerated to the speed where we will never again feel their gravitational force, then that would only contribute to even faster acceleration, right? The question is: can we explain the expansion of the universe without supposing that space itself is expanding, where instead expansion and acceleration can be explained in terms of gravitational forces that are delayed or removed from consideration? Thanks.