# X-ray question

1. Feb 1, 2014

### dheeraj

i everybody

i've studied in my 9th standard that x rays are produced when cathode rays(electrons) hit solid targets such as molybdenum,titanium,etc..
now we'll observe the physics going out there
so what's happening there?
an electron is coming with some speed say v and hitting the valence electron present in the valence shell or orbit of the molybdenum atom
and eventually a x ray is emitted whose speed is c(speed of light)
so my doubt here is the electron transition is taking place above there and an x ray is produced
so in the large hadron collider if two electrons are made to hit at almost at 99.99% of the speed of light even then will an x ray is produced?
if so,what are the other particles that emit when they(electrons) collide?

thanks!!!

2. Feb 1, 2014

### Staff: Mentor

As the term "Large Hadron" implies, one accelerates protons, not electrons. Electron (lepton) colliders use electrons. Just like high energy protons can collide and produce mesons or heavier particles, dependent on the total energy, high energy electrons can create particles, e.g., muons.

When high energy electrons collide, the photons produced are considered gamma rays, not X-rays.

X-rays are those photons produced when electrons fall into the orbitals within the atom, and typically, the K, L, M, . . . shells, as opposed to the valence (outermost) orbitals.

X-ray energies are characteristic of the element and are related to the nuclear charge (Z).

3. Feb 1, 2014

### phyzguy

In addition to the X-rays produced by electrons falling into inner orbitals as Astronuc discussed, when a beam of high-energy electrons impacts a solid target, X-rays are also produced by a process called bremsstrahlung. Bremsstrahlung is German for "braking radiation". Since accelerated charges radiate electromagnetic waves, an electron which is decelerating as it hits a target emits radiation. If the electron's energy is high enough, this radiation will be in the form of X-rays.

I think most of the X-rays in a medical X-ray machine are produced through bremsstrahlung, rather than line emission due to electrons falling into inner shells. I'm not certain of this, however.

4. Feb 1, 2014

### Staff: Mentor

The picture below is from the wiki article on X-Rays.

5. Feb 2, 2014

### dheeraj

so if high energy electrons can create particles like muon. muon is an anti neutrino. how is(muon) emitted?

6. Feb 2, 2014

### ZapperZ

Staff Emeritus
Muon is NOT an antineutrino!

You could have done a quick search on this and corrected this yourself!

Why are you bringing muon into this question? Have you moved past your original question and decided to change the topic?

Zz.

7. Feb 3, 2014

### dheeraj

hmm zapperz i ain't changing the topic here well if you haven't read the #2 please read and pardon muon is not an antineutrino andi haven't googled it i just got confused i know that muon is a neutrino...

8. Feb 3, 2014

### phyzguy

A muon is not a neutrino either. It is a distinct particle, similar to an electron only heavier.

9. Feb 3, 2014

### ZapperZ

Staff Emeritus
You should stop being lazy and do some reading FIRST rather than stating glaringly wrong statement such as this. Otherwise this thread will be closed for being too silly.

Zz.

10. Feb 5, 2014

### TheDemx27

Perhaps you are referring to a muon neutrino although I don't know what that has to do with your question. It would probably be helpful to familiarize yourself with this chart when talking about subatomic particles:

The muon neutrino and muon are both leptons and are denoted as $\upsilon_{}\mu$ and $\mu$.

Last edited: Feb 5, 2014