# Zero Energy Universe?

1. Mar 5, 2013

2. Mar 5, 2013

### Staff: Mentor

Yes it is only by convention. See the following.

From here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potent...ion_where_gravitational_energy_is_negative.3F

3. Mar 5, 2013

4. Mar 5, 2013

### Mordred

This is a description of false vacuum inflationary model. In essence the gravity is the balancer to make the sum of total forces/energy= zero. The other factor not mentioned is vaccuum energy between the true vacuum/false vacuum. This model has numerous problems which led to other inflationary models in the following sequence. old inflationary model, new inflationary model. eternal inflationary model, chaotic inflationary model. etc. the list goes on. The main problem with A.Guth's model has to do with runaway inflation. It never stops inflating. Some models proposed pocket universes from this model. Severla multiverse models also use it.
As stated its main problem has never been settled. However if you wish to study it start with false vacuum/true vaccuum. Its a model that is not as popular as it once was. Hope that helps

5. Mar 5, 2013

### InvalidID

Oh, well that went over my head. It's okay though as I probably can't understand it at this point in time.

If it's an unpopular model, I wonder why he has mentioned it in this video: http://youtu.be/D6XAkVA7RmY?t=4m2s I suppose it's because he believes that it is true.

6. Mar 5, 2013

### Mordred

This recent threada covers it fairly well, Their is numerous articles and explainations in the thread including a few alterate models.

quicke explaination i copied from the above thread.

Here is a quick guideline on process.
Key point in order for this model to work is that energy density must balance with zero energy. Gravity being considered as negative energy.
Rapid expansion occurs this creates a false vacuum. This false vaccuum. To maintain energy conservation energy is borrowed. I cant recall what the model states its borrowed from but if I recall its borrowed from gravity.
With that energy quantum tunneling occurs from virtual particles. Some of the virtual particles tunnel to the true vacuum. Leaving real particles.

It should be noted that virtual particles are created in a large variety of sources. Cosmological horizons. =Unruh radiation. Blackholes is Hawking radiation. Schwinger particle production is electromagnetic disturbences. Parker radiation is due to expansion.
All of the above are various blackbody radiation.

There are countless other particle production methods.
What they all boil down to is a vacuum is never empty.
False vacuum being the lowest energy state has quantum fluctuations described by Heisenburg uncertainty principle. Those fluctuations in turn create virtual particles. Those virtual particles in the right circumstances become real particles.
Throughout out all this for this model the energy density must stay equal to zero with gravity and vacuum energy as part of the balancers.
However even if the energy density isnt zero the various particle production methods describe above are all still valid.
Sounds crazy however their is tons of research and models that support this ultimate free lunch.

Last edited: Mar 5, 2013