Not sure I get you but that rings true.
I agree. Thus Buddhists etc. often assert that consciousness does not exist. (Even though it's also fundamental).
Not sure about this because 'consciousness' gets tricky to define at all at this depth. Certainly a state beyond 'self' anyway.
I would argue that it cannot be detected in principle because if it could it could not be 'ultimate' (it's existence would still be realtive or 'dependent'). We would still need yet another state beyond what we can detect. To link back to Goedel - the existence of the meta-system cannot be proved wityhin the system, only infered from the existence of the system. If the universe is seen as a formal axiomatic system (as per Penrose) then 'ultimate reality' is the meta-system (equivalently so is 'essence').
I prefer to think of it in terms of a perfect condensate of some some sort, one and many at the same time and infinitely peturbable - but it's just a metaphor.
Your point about the 'continuum' that mathematics cannot deal with is what I've occasionaly tried to argue from Zeno's paradoxes of motion, which are not paradoxes if reality is ultimately undifferentiated. But I haven't convinced anyone yet. Most seem to think that the calculus resolves them.
This brings us back to Penrose, who argues for some sort of ideal condensate in the brain, linked somehow to quantum coherence and microtubules - but he loses me on that one.