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Reduction of Order For Recursions

This is not meant as a full introduction to recursion relations but it should suffice for just about any level of the student. Most of us remember recursion relations from secondary school. We start with a number, say, 1. Then we add 3. That gives us 4. Now we that number and add 3 again…

Counting to p-adic Calculus: All Number Systems That We Have

An entire book could easily be written about the history of numbers from ancient Babylon and India, over Abu Dscha’far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Chwarizmi (##\sim ## 780 – 845), Gerbert of Aurillac aka pope Silvester II. (##\sim ## 950 – 1003), Leonardo da Pisa Fibonacci (##\sim## 1170 – 1240), Johann Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777 –…

Évariste Galois and His Theory

  * Oct. 25th, 1811  † May 31st, 1832   … or why squaring the circle is doomed. Galois died in a duel at the age of twenty. Yet, he gave us what we now call Galois theory. It decides all three ancient classical problems, squaring the circle, doubling the cube, and partitioning angles into…

Yardsticks to Metric Tensor Fields

I asked myself why different scientists understand the same thing seemingly differently, especially the concept of a metric tensor. If we ask a topologist, a classical geometer, an algebraist, a differential geometer, and a physicist “What is a metric?” then we get five different answers. I mean it is all about distances, isn’t it? “Yes”…

P vs. NP and what is a Turing Machine (TM)?

P or NP This article deals with the complexity of calculations and in particular the meaning of ##P\stackrel{?}{\neq}NP## Before we explain what P and NP actually are, we have to solve a far bigger problem: What is a calculation? And how do we measure its complexity? Many people might answer, that a calculation is an…

The History and Importance of the Riemann Hypothesis

Riemann Hypothesis History RH: All non-trivial zeros of the Riemannian zeta-function lie on the critical line. ERH: All zeros of L-functions to complex Dirichlet characters of finite cyclic groups within the critical strip lie on the critical line. Related Article: The Extended Riemann Hypothesis and Ramanujan’s Sum: Shortest Possible Explanation The history of the Riemann…

A Novel Technique of Calculating Unit Hypercube Integrals

Introduction In this insight article, we will build all the machinery necessary to evaluate unit hypercube integrals by a novel technique. We will first state a theorem on Dirichlet integrals, second develop a sequence of nested sets that point-wise converges to a unit hypercube, and thirdly make these two pieces compatible by means of a…

The Extended Riemann Hypothesis and Ramanujan’s Sum

Riemann Hypothesis and Ramanujan’s Sum Explanation RH: All non-trivial zeros of the Riemannian zeta-function lie on the critical line. ERH: All zeros of L-functions to complex Dirichlet characters of finite cyclic groups within the critical strip lie on the critical line. Related Article: The History and Importance of the Riemann Hypothesis The goal of this…

The Amazing Relationship Between Integration And Euler’s Number

We use integration to measure lengths, areas, or volumes. This is a geometrical interpretation, but we want to examine an analytical interpretation that leads us to Integration reverses differentiation. Hence let us start with differentiation. Weierstraß Definition of Derivatives ##f## is differentiable at ##x## if there is a linear map ##D_{x}f##, such that \begin{equation*} \underbrace{D_{x}(f)}_{\text{Derivative}}\cdot…

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