Japan earthquake - contamination & consequences outside Fukushima NPP


by jlduh
Tags: consequences, contamination, earthquake, fukushima, japan, nuclear
Azby
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#469
Jan6-12, 09:58 PM
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Quote Quote by Gary7 View Post
Ministry of Education is reporting cesium fallout in Fukushima city in the past several days. Figures for January 2nd - 3rd are 180MBq/km2 of Cesium 134, and 252MBq/km2 of Cesium 137.

No explanation for the rise. Internet chatter starting to heat up with speculation.

http://money.jp.msn.com/news/yucasee...mentid=5727817
The Safecast discussion list has a very informative thread on the subject:

http://groups.google.com/group/safec...f9fd6bec0ad8d6

In a nutshell: The readings peaked at 400Mbq/km2 or 400 Bq/m2; parts of Fukushima are measuring 50kBq/m2 to 2MBq/m2 so this is a minuscule amount. Thermal cycling and ground freezing probably disturbed the upper layer of soil, giving higher readings, and the high winds those days probably picked up some contaminated soil and redistributed it. No iodine was detected anywhere either, so that indicates no new releases. Finally, Prof Hayano posted a graph linking windspeed to Cs levels:

http://twitpic.com/843z4d

I was dismayed at how quickly the internet rumor mill in Japan snowballed this into a crisis of some sort. One poster on FB said,
"My wife has a freaky friend who called us to say she is packing to go to Oita because she learned on the net that no. 4 is approaching critical."
That's like someone in NYC saying they're evacuating to Florida. On Safecast a poster said,
"On January 5 and 6 the Japanese portion of Twitter is was buzzing with traffic on this subject. A Gunderson video video telling people to flee in case Dai-ichi Reactor 4 collapses was circulated via the internet, and some people were saying that they were so worried that they did not feel like going to work. The information that Iwaki residents recently received new iodine tablets because the shelf dates of earlier distributed tablets had expired, was also taken out of context to mean that some new nuclear event was possibly unfolding. "

Neither MEXT nor TEPCO anticipated the reaction and so neither provided timely explanation. I fault them for this. And the reaction shows how on edge people still are. True, there are lots of voices spreading bad information and amplifying the anxiety, but the fear is real nevertheless.
zapperzero
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#470
Jan12-12, 10:43 AM
P: 1,030
Russian police have confiscated dozens of car parts imported from Japan after they were found to be radiation-tainted.
http://www.rttnews.com/Content/Marke...d=1795840&SM=1
Caniche
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#471
Jan18-12, 03:49 PM
P: 106
Thermal cycling and high winds have been a constant worry for me
tsutsuji
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#472
Jan19-12, 07:38 AM
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Quote Quote by Gary7 View Post
Ministry of Education is reporting cesium fallout in Fukushima city in the past several days. Figures for January 2nd - 3rd are 180MBq/km2 of Cesium 134, and 252MBq/km2 of Cesium 137.

No explanation for the rise. Internet chatter starting to heat up with speculation.

http://money.jp.msn.com/news/yucasee...mentid=5727817
Quote Quote by Azby View Post
In a nutshell: The readings peaked at 400Mbq/km2 or 400 Bq/m2; parts of Fukushima are measuring 50kBq/m2 to 2MBq/m2 so this is a minuscule amount.
Let's see how minuscule. The groundshine coefficients for Cs 134 and Cs 137 are provided at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs...ableau-eng.php

For Cs 134 we have 180 Bq/m * 1.48 E-15 * 3600 = 0.96 nanosievert/hour = 0.00096 microsievert/hour of groundshine

For Cs 137 we have 252 Bq/m * 5.51 E-16 * 3600 = 0.50 nanosievert/hour = 0.00050 microsievert/hour of groundshine

Do you have a clue on how the inhalation dose can be estimated ? In order to apply the inhalation coefficients, knowing that an adult breathes 22.2 m/day ( http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs...eng.php#table2 ), one needs radiation measurements in Bq/m. Is there a way to estimate them from the Bq/m values, or do we need a specific measurement ?
Sorai
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#473
Jan19-12, 04:51 PM
P: 16
Quote Quote by tsutsuji View Post
Let's see how minuscule. The groundshine coefficients for Cs 134 and Cs 137 are provided at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs...ableau-eng.php

For Cs 134 we have 180 Bq/m * 1.48 E-15 * 3600 = 0.96 nanosievert/hour = 0.00096 microsievert/hour of groundshine

For Cs 137 we have 252 Bq/m * 5.51 E-16 * 3600 = 0.50 nanosievert/hour = 0.00050 microsievert/hour of groundshine

Do you have a clue on how the inhalation dose can be estimated ? In order to apply the inhalation coefficients, knowing that an adult breathes 22.2 m/day ( http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs...eng.php#table2 ), one needs radiation measurements in Bq/m. Is there a way to estimate them from the Bq/m values, or do we need a specific measurement ?
We can use the data of dust monitoring from Fukushima City, but I do not know where the sampling point (Sugitsuma town) is located in relation with the fallout sampling point:

Readings of dust sampling (June 1, 2011 - January 19, 2012)

Radioactivity Concentration (Bq/m^3) Cs-134 Cs-137
2011/12/27 - 2011/12/28 ND 0.000310
2011/12/28 - 2011/12/29 0.000379 0.000331
2011/12/29 - 2011/12/30 0.00138 0.00171
2011/12/30 - 2011/12/31 0.000468 ND
2011/12/31 - 2012/1/1 0.000424 0.000482
2012/1/1 - 2012/1/2 0.000727 0.00103
2012/1/2 - 2012/1/3 0.00130 0.00164
2012/1/3 - 2012/1/4 0.000994 0.00120
2012/1/4 - 2012/1/5 0.000642 0.000813
2012/1/5 - 2012/1/6 ND ND
2012/1/6 - 2012/1/7 0.000417 0.000335
2012/1/7 - 2012/1/8 0.000506 0.000922
2012/1/8 - 2012/1/9 0.000635 0.000748
2012/1/9 - 2012/1/10 0.00126 0.00136
2012/1/10 - 2012/1/11 0.000891 0.000716
2012/1/11 - 2012/1/12 ND 0.000380
2012/1/12 - 2012/1/13 0.000680 0.000930
2012/1/13 - 2012/1/14 0.000504 0.000601
2012/1/14 - 2012/1/15 0.000702 0.000974
2012/1/15 - 2012/1/16 0.00183 0.00235
2012/1/16 - 2012/1/17 0.00108 0.00134
Detection limits are 0.0003Bq/m^3 for Cs-134 and 0.0003Bq/m^3 for Cs-137
tsutsuji
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#474
Jan23-12, 10:07 AM
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Quote Quote by Sorai View Post
Radioactivity Concentration (Bq/m^3) Cs-134 Cs-137
2012/1/15 - 2012/1/16 0.00183 0.00235
Thank you.

According to http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs...ableau-eng.php , the inhalation dose coefficient are 6.6 nSv/Bq for Cs 134 and 4.6 nSv/Bq for Cs 137
According to http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs...eng.php#table2 , an adult breathes 22.2 m/day

0.00183 * 6.6 * 22.2/24 = 0.011 nSv/hour by inhalation of Cs 134
0.00235 * 4.6 * 22.2/24 = 0.010 nSv/hour by inhalation of Cs 137

According to http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs...ableau-eng.php , the cloudshine dose coefficients are 7.06e-14 Sv/(s*Bq/m) for Cs 134 and 2.55e-14 Sv/(s*Bq/m) for Cs 137

0.00183 * 7.06e-14 * 3600 = 4.65 e-13 Sv/hour = 0.000465 nSv/hour by Cs 134 cloudshine
0.00235 * 2.55e-14 *3600 = 2.15 e-13 Sv/hour = 0.000215 nSv/hour by Cs 137 cloudshine

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...20_camera.html Toshiba is testing a gamma ray camera in Fukushima city, looking how it could be helpful for decontamination work. The problem is that currently it takes 10 minutes to take a picture.

http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/...dm013000c.html "The average radiation exposure of some 37,000 residents in Fukushima city following the nuclear crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant came to 0.26 millisieverts during the three-month period from September, the municipal government said Thursday [12 January]."

http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/...na021000c.html "Chiba Prefecture troubled by shrinking population after nuclear disaster"

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...45_doukou.html Fukushima residents are now allowed to have a company to come along when they pay a temporary visit at their house in the restricted zone. This will help them to perform repairs or to carry their belongings. [What if the said belongings are contaminated? And what about company workers' health?]

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...420_kensa.html The national government and Fukushima prefecture are going to test breast milk with around 10,000 mothers.

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...123/index.html The government is studying how food producers can be compensated for losses due to the changing of the food safety levels (100 Bq/kg instead of 500 Bq/kg for general food from 1 April), as the consumers might refrain from consuming some products even before 1 April.
Caniche
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#475
Jan23-12, 05:13 PM
P: 106
Any updates on the levels of seawater contamination? The regular info seems to have dried up.
Yamanote
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#476
Jan26-12, 02:39 PM
P: 68
Quote Quote by Caniche View Post
Any updates on the levels of seawater contamination? The regular info seems to have dried up.

You mean this one:

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushi.../index9-e.html
zapperzero
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#477
Jan27-12, 09:31 AM
P: 1,030
http://www.manchester.ac.uk/research...splay/?id=7895

this thing could solve a lot of problems...
Yamanote
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#478
Jan27-12, 03:23 PM
P: 68
Nice stuff.
tsutsuji
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#479
Jan27-12, 06:28 PM
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http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...124/index.html As a countermeasure decided after finding that contaminated stones were delivered from a contaminated stone pit in Namie, the government is goint to check construction materials from the restricted zone. The namie stones were used in the concrete which was used to build a new appartment building in Nihonmatsu and high radiation levels were measured inside the appartments. A report will be issued within this month. Concerning the preparation of national safety level for construction materials, the nuclear disaster response headquarters said "it will take time to study it".

http://mainichi.jp/select/jiken/news...40045000c.html A decontamination roadmap was released on 26 January. According to the mayor of Namie, almost nothing is scheduled for the above 50 mSv zone.

http://josen.env.go.jp/index.html new decontamination website

http://www.env.go.jp/press/press.php?serial=14747 decontamination roadmap

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...128/index.html helicopter surveys are starting in Nagasaki, Saga, and Fukuoka prefectures on 30 January. Hokkaido's helicopter survey will start after snow melts.

http://radioactivity.mext.go.jp/ja/1...910_012714.pdf Helicopter survey schedule for Western Japan and Hokkaido

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...0_gyokyou.html experimental fishing in close waters off Fukushima prefecture was planned in February, but it is being postponed because some of the fish tested are higher than the provisional safety level.
tsutsuji
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#480
Jan28-12, 05:07 PM
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http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/houdou/2r98520000021b3t.html (27 January 2012) Opinion request about the revision of food screening methods to be applied from 1 April. Opinions must be written in Japanese and received by 13 February.

http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/houdou/2r9...0000021aru.pdf (27 January press release) Drinking water results in a number of Tohoku and Kanto cities. All the data are "ND" (not detected")

http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/houdou/2r9...0000021ctw.pdf (radioactive substances in food, report No. 306 of 27 January 2012, Rice farming department, press release of 24 January 2012) : two farms in Date city, former Oguni village, Fukushima prefecture were found above level. Farm A : 700 Bq/kg, and farm B : 1,110 Bq/kg.
Yamanote
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#481
Jan29-12, 09:07 AM
P: 68
The second part of this animation shows, what would have happened in case of an accident on the other side of Japan:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEFt9p7-Dxo
zapperzero
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#482
Jan29-12, 10:39 AM
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Quote Quote by Yamanote View Post
The second part of this animation shows, what would have happened in case of an accident on the other side of Japan:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEFt9p7-Dxo
A bit disingenuous... are there such tsunamis on the other coast? I thought not.
But then, it's not the only possible accident cause.
Jim Lagerfeld
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#483
Jan29-12, 08:06 PM
P: 42
Quote Quote by zapperzero View Post
A bit disingenuous... are there such tsunamis on the other coast? I thought not.
But then, it's not the only possible accident cause.
The 1983 Sea of Japan tsunami swept along a wide part of the Sea of Japan coast, from the Noto peninusla north, reached ten metres in height and and killed about one hundred people including some on the Korean peninsula. Kashiwazaki has tsunami protection for a reason!

The animation shows a plant in Fukui spewing radiation on Nagoya; if you shift the scenario north Noto peninusla to Kashiwazaki then the same plume would be right over Tokyo. It is a pretty crudely drawn scenario, but the risk is there.

Cheers,
James
clancy688
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#484
Jan30-12, 04:51 AM
P: 546
Another example: The 1993 Hokkaido earthquake.

The tsunami inundated large parts of Okushiri, despite its tsunami defenses. A maximum run-up of 32 m was recorded on the western part of the island near Monai. A tsunami was widely observed in the Sea of Japan with a run-up of 3.5 m at Akita in northern Honshu, up to 4.0 m in southeastern Russia and up to 2.6 m on the coast of South Korea.[4]
Location of Okushiri: Northern part of the Sea of Japan.



Furthermore, the height of Tsunamis is not only determinated by the force of the earthquake, but also by the shape of the coast. It's possible that Kashiwazaki-Kariwa stands at a location which is insensitive to Tsunamis.

Example Kamaishi:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2...-Scrutiny.html

There are two bays, directly besides each other. But the Tsunami height flcutuates between 30 and 100 feet.
Notice the difference between the points "E" and "F".
tsutsuji
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#485
Jan30-12, 10:04 AM
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http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...2390005-n1.htm 39 bags (57.5 kg) of rice from the 1100 Bq/kg farm have been sold. The prefecture ordered the recall of the bags. This is the second occurrence of contaminated rice being sold. Until now 38 rice farms in 3 cities and one town have been found above safety level.

http://www.sankeibiz.jp/compliance/n...1430014-n1.htm In 2012, rice planting in the areas that harvested rice contaminated between 100 and 500 Bq/kg in 2011 will be subject to conditions such as low risk (when the number of samples found above 100 Bq/kg was small) and decontamination measures, the Fukushima Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives announced. Concerning the areas where rice was not grown in 2011, the conditions will be set after the full test results of the 2011 harvests are known. The Fukushima Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives also said that in 2012, 100% of the bags will be tested, and whenever a radiation, even a small one, is detected, they will not be shipped. The ministry of agriculture indicated at the end of last year its intention to restrict rice planting in the areas where crops higher than 500 Bq/kg were harvested. Concerning the areas where crops were found between 100 and 500 Bq/kg, the policy will be decided after consulting with the prefecture and growers.

http://www.47news.jp/CN/201201/CN2012012701002644.html The ministry of health announced that the detection threshold for general food testing that is to be applied from 1 April, is set at 25 Bq/kg instead of the present 50 Bq/kg. Public comments on this measure are open till 13 February.

http://www.chunichi.co.jp/article/na...702000125.html Nagano prefecture has started testing each mushroom growing farm. The 600 farms will be tested until March.

http://www.hiroshimapeacemedia.jp/me...26102721779_ja (Chugoku Shimbun, 26 January morning edition) Professor Toshihiro Takatsuji of Nagasaki university announced at an international symposium at Hiroshima university on 25 January that high radiation levels were found in Nagasaki one month after the accident. The Cs 134 concentration on paper filters was 11,300 Bq/kg during the week from 6 April 2011. Using US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data, he found that on 6 April, the southern half of Japan was blown by winds from Tohoku. He said that even if the atmopheric radiation value is low, it is possible that it increases in locations where radioactive substances accumulate, such as on air conditioner filters.

http://www.minpo.jp/view.php?pageId=...wsMode=article (Fukushima Minpo, 26 January) the Study committee announced the results of the thyroid examination of the children 18 years old or below from Namie, Iitate and Kawamata. Among 3765 people tested, zero were found necessitating immediate second examination, 26 were found necessitating a second examination, and 1117 with stiffnesses of 5 mm or below, which are considered benign. According to the vice-president of Fukushima medical university, there is no malignity variation due to the nuclear accident.
tsutsuji
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#486
Feb9-12, 03:52 PM
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Fukushima:
http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311dis...AJ201201270048 The government's decontamination roadmap is setting up a 1 microsievert/hour goal in schools, and a 10 mSv/year goal elsewhere in the 10-20 mSv/year zone.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/fuk...OYT8T00012.htm 140 samples have been above 500 Bq/kg among 2125 Fukushima Prefecture shallow (less than 50 m deep) water sea fish samples tested since April.

http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/...na008000c.html worms around the plant ingest large quantities of cesium. It is feared that other animals that eat worms might in turn be contaminated.

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...207/index.html Tepco will compensate cars, busses, and trucks broken because they were left without maintenance, or because they were not allowed to leave the restricted area because their radiation doses were too high.

http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/natio...na013000c.html [temporary] "Radioactive waste disposal site unveiled to reporters" [in Hirono, Fukushima prefecture].

Elsewhere in Japan:
http://www.okinawatimes.co.jp/article/2012-01-31_29251/ 1.12 Bq/kg of cesium was found in eringi mushrooms grown in Nagano and eaten by schoolchildren in a south Okinawa Island school in November.

http://mytown.asahi.com/yamagata/new...00001201310003 Two roadside ditches above 8000 Bq/kg have been found in a survey of 26 locations in 12 cities and towns in Yamagata prefecture. 19400 Bq/kg was found in Tendo, and 17400 Bq/kg in Sagae. The radiation at 1 m above ground was 0.13 microsievert/hour in both cases.

http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/gu...102000059.html 473 and 480 Bq/kg in wakasagi fish, and 768 Bq/kg in iwana trouts in Akagi Oonuma lake, Gunma prefecture. Fishing remains restricted.

http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...1550005-n1.htm 2077 Bq/kg dried shiitake mushrooms grown in Shizuoka were found in a shop in Yokohama. 7 bags (of 80 g each) have already been sold.


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