## rod bending calculation

I need to calculate the force necessary to bend a rod 180 degrees around a radius of 1.75 meters. Basically bending the rod into a horseshoe. I have looked at the simple bending calculations and I am sure this must be similar to those but I do not see anything for a constant radius bend. Any help is greatly appreciated. The materials to be bent are copper and aluminum. Thanks

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 If you are talking about permanently forming the rod into the bent form, you will need some information about the yield point for the material. Permanent forming involves large plastic deformation, so you will need to determine the amount of strain you wish to create in the rod, and then see where that puts you on the stress--strain diagram. The required force will be that which develops the force for this stress, but you must allow for some amount of spring back. This is essentially a manufacturing engineering problem, one that cannot be entirely calculated but only estimated.
 I believe for the diameter I am looking at bending around the bend will be entirely or mostly elastic (depending on the diameter of the rod)... I will research the stress strain tables further though... are there any calculations for an elastic bend? thanks for the help

## rod bending calculation

There is a question here that needs to be resolved, even if this can be accomplished with a fully elastic bend. Do you want it to be a fully elastic bend, in which case it will fully spring back on release of the force, or do you want to form it to the bend radius so that it does not spring back? These are two different problems.

Assuming that it will bend to that radius with only elastic deformations, then you are talking about the problem of the elastica, a problem of classical elasticity theory that involves elliptic integrals in the solution.

The forming problem is another matter altogether.

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