Hello old ned,
If you have some difficulty with concepts in cosmology you could start your own thread and ask questions, either here or in the General Relativity forum.
This thread is about something else. I dropped in just to respond to a side question by V2kkim.
This discussion thread is about the paper by Labini et al.
The Labini paper is probably not as important as some remarks made on this thread might lead you to think
There is indeed one standard cosmological model---the socalled LCDM that everybody uses, though they may adjust parameters up or down some.
There is AFAIK no one standard model of structure formation
. Structure formation is the condensation of clumps out of originally almost uniform cloud. That is something people are currently working on.
They make computer models to try to imitate how clusters of galaxies curdled and collected out of the initial fog. They are trying several different ways of modeling this.
Trying for something that gives realistic results.
Structure formation models are details that take place within the broad context of the LCDM. The LCDM is fairly settled and the Labini paper does not challenge it. It finds nothing that contradicts the main outlines of LCDM.
Details of structure formation is still work in progress. It is par for the course when Labini finds some statistics that don't match various structure formation schemes that people are studying. Just a tempest in the technical teapot. But potentially helpful to the people who are trying to figure out the process of structure formation (curdling
If you are having trouble with the basic concepts, I'd say ask questions about the basic concepts in some more appropriate thread.