Quantum physics, or quantum mechanics, is a branch of physics that explores the behavior of matter and energy at the smallest scales, where classical physics principles break down. It introduces the concept of quantization, suggesting that certain properties, such as energy levels, are quantized and can only exist in discrete values.
Quantum mechanics encompasses wave-particle duality, where particles like electrons exhibit both wave and particle characteristics. The theory is probabilistic, relying on probability amplitudes to predict outcomes, and features phenomena like superposition, where particles can exist in multiple states simultaneously.
Quantum physics has transformed our understanding of the microscopic world, leading to technologies like transistors and lasers, and continues to provoke profound questions about the nature of reality and the role of observation in shaping it.