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Oct9-11, 08:12 AM
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Quote Quote by Bjarne View Post
Option 2
B's meter stick is longer and therefore distances shorter. - This is the only explanation I can accept so far.

Actually, along with gravitational time dilation, there is also gravitational length contraction. According to the 'further from sun' observer, the closer observer's rulers are slightly short, rather than long.

Be that as it may, there is straightforward way the two can observers agree on their speed relative to the milky way center. Suppose each adopts as their distance standard (converting other ways of measuring distance to far away object to match this standard) c times light round trip time to object as they measure it. Then the closer to sun observer thinks the MW center is closer (less time for the round trip). They then figure a smaller circumference for the orbit. They divide the smaller circumference by the shorter time, and come up with the same speed as the 'further from sun' observer.