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Useful nucleus
Feb28-12, 04:07 AM
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P: 264
I can read two questions in your post and I will attempt a brief answer here. More info can be found in any introductory quantum mechanics (or Physical chemistry) text.

(1) The number of electrons that can fill a shell (or a subshell) emerges naturally from the solution of shrodinger equationn.
(2) Closed shells are favored as this minimizes the energy of the atom.