Not really. The closest would be satellites such as GRACE and GOCE that are used to build gravity models. However, while gravity models are used in oil exploration, these satellite-only gravity models aren't of high enough resolution to detect oil deposits. Moreover, both the GRACE and GOCE projects depend on GPS. There is no Martian GPS.
There probably isn't oil or coal on Mars. Life on Mars (still an if) probably barely eked by and never went into overdrive like it did a few times in Earth's history. Our oil and coal were formed during a few key points in time when life on Earth was particularly prolific. The Carboniferous (note the name) climate was significantly warmer and had significantly higher levels of oxygen and CO2 than present.
There was a planned joint European/NASA satellite to look for the sources of methane in Mars atmosphere, but Obama's Feb 13 budget proposal nixed that idea (and lots of others). The next few years are going to be very, very ugly for NASA.