Japan earthquake - contamination & consequences outside Fukushima NPP


by jlduh
Tags: consequences, contamination, earthquake, fukushima, japan, nuclear
Astronuc
Astronuc is offline
#379
Oct17-11, 09:48 PM
Admin
Astronuc's Avatar
P: 21,637
Quote Quote by Sorai View Post
Is this measured in I-131 equivalents or just directly cesium releases without any conversion?

Sorry if this has been asked before.
100,000,000 Bq/hour is a measure of decay rate, regardless of the isotope. It should be ƩλiNi/V, where λi is the decay constant of radionuclide i, Ni/V is the concentration of radionuclide i in whatever volume is released - whether air/steam or water.

There should be little I-131 (~8-day half-life) left to release, since this should have decayed away. The longer-lived I-129 would be present, but with low activity. It's possible that Kr-85 would be in steam or air released. In the water would be Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90, along with Ru-103, Ru-106, and perhaps radioisotopes of Se, Sn, Sb are likely in the effluents. Most other remaining isotopes (of Y, Zr, Nb, Ce, Pm, Sm, Eu) should be bound as oxides in the fuel, although some may have leached out. It's also possible that the coolant contains activitated corrosion products from core structural materials. And there may be some transuranics.

It would help if they itemized the nuclides they believe are responsible for the activity.
clancy688
clancy688 is offline
#380
Oct18-11, 06:35 AM
P: 546
Quote Quote by Astronuc View Post
100,000,000 Bq/hour is a measure of decay rate, regardless of the isotope. It should be ƩλiNi/V, where λi is the decay constant of radionuclide i, Ni/V is the concentration of radionuclide i in whatever volume is released - whether air/steam or water.
I believe that he wanted know whether this number is the converted I131 activity as used for determining INES classifications or just the actual escaping activity with no conversion whatsoever.
Shinjukusam
Shinjukusam is offline
#381
Oct18-11, 07:26 AM
P: 35
Quote Quote by clancy688 View Post
I believe that he wanted know whether this number is the converted I131 activity as used for determining INES classifications or just the actual escaping activity with no conversion whatsoever.
Heh, I remember the day the media learned you could do that. Suddenly they got a whole new bunch of big numbers to throw around.
tsutsuji
tsutsuji is offline
#382
Oct18-11, 10:40 AM
PF Gold
P: 1,220
Tokyo:

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/2011...350041000.html 3.99 μSv/h was found in an Adachi ward survey on 17 October, 5 cm above ground near a swimming pool equipment room in Higashifuchie primary school. On 18 October afternoon the top 10 cm layer of earth was removed and the radiation dropped to 0.15 μSv/h at 5 cm above ground and 0.12 μSv/h at both 50 cm and 100 cm above ground, which is below the 0.25 μSv/h standard decided by this ward, and the no-entry regulation was lifted in the night. The completion of a survey of the school's side ditches, roofs and places where rainwater gathers is planned for 19 October. In the future, the ward will check the side ditches and draining trenches in 800 locations such as schools and parks one after the other.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/tok...OYT8T00085.htm Map of the location of the Higashifuchie primary school hot spot (black circle on the map). The 17 October survey was performed in a hurry by the ward after some citizens who had measured 20 locations reported that five of them, including the Higashifuchie school hot spot, were above the 1 μSv/h national standard. While it was confirmed that 1 μSv/h was exceeded at 5 cm above ground at the Higashifuchie school hot spot, at 50 cm and 100 cm above ground the measurements were respectively 0.41 and 0.24 μSv/h. In the other four spots, the ward found radiations between 0.43 and 0.95 μSv/h at 5 cm above ground. Until then the ward had made measurements at 1500 locations where children spend their everyday lives (schoolyards, parks, etc.) and had performed cleaning each time the ward's own standard - set at 0.25 μSv/h - had been exceeded. In the future, the ward will check locations that children don't enter on a daily basis inside schools, kindergartens, nursery schools etc, but where there is a probability of presence of hot spots such as below rainspouts.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/ne...OYT1T00963.htm In response to the recent hotspot discoveries in Funabashi (Chiba prefecture) or Adachi ward (Tokyo), the minister of education and science, Masaharu Nakagawa announced in a press conference after the 18 October cabinet meeting that the government will issue a guideline addressing hotspot measurement method and cleaning.
Astronuc
Astronuc is offline
#383
Oct18-11, 06:27 PM
Admin
Astronuc's Avatar
P: 21,637
Quote Quote by clancy688 View Post
I believe that he wanted know whether this number is the converted I131 activity as used for determining INES classifications or just the actual escaping activity with no conversion whatsoever.
Perhaps, but normally, the iodine may be calculated as does equivalent iodine (DEI) in which case one needs to know the activity of specific isotopes and weight the dose appropriately.

Total activity is simply not enough information.
Sorai
Sorai is offline
#384
Oct18-11, 08:26 PM
P: 16
Quote Quote by clancy688 View Post
I believe that he wanted know whether this number is the converted I131 activity as used for determining INES classifications or just the actual escaping activity with no conversion whatsoever.
Yes, that was my question. But it seems they are just reporting total releases without conversion. Cs-134 and Cs-137, according to the new version of the roadmap: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp...s/111017e3.pdf [page 14]
tsutsuji
tsutsuji is offline
#385
Oct19-11, 09:04 AM
PF Gold
P: 1,220
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/ne...OYT1T00946.htm The nashi pear growers of Tottori prefecture (Western Japan) are requesting a compensation because the nashi pear prices dropped by 30% after nashi pears from Fukushima prefecture were distributed in Kansai and other areas.

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...019/index.html Helicopter monitoring, originally planned in 22 prefectures from Aomori to Aichi, will eventually be performed in the whole country.

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/genpatsu-...mujinheri.html Tamura town (former evacuation prepared area) will use a 2.70 m long unmanned helicopter to monitor radiations in field and forest areas.

Hagashimurayama, Tokyo:

http://mainichi.jp/select/jiken/news...40090000c.html 2.153 μSv/h have been found in a ditch behind the lunchroom in a primary school in Hagashimurayama, Tokyo metropolis. The city surveyed 22 schools on 18 October and found radiations of 0.19 μSv/h and higher at 8 schools and removed the contaminated mud. The mud was then temporarily buried inside school premises. The city mayor announced that the scope of the radiation surveys "will be extended with maximum efforts".

http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...2200016-n1.htm Hagashimurayama city found radiations higher than 0.19 μSv/h at 13 locations in 6 primary schools and 2 junior highschools. A survey of ditches and rainspouts will be performed in kindergartens and nursery schools in the future.

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/2011...368281000.html Video of the cleaning of the 2.153 μSv/h hotspot. The radiation dropped to 0.102 μSv/h after earth and sand removal. The second highest hotspot in the 8 schools, after the 2.153 μSv/h one, was a 0.5 μSv/h one.

Adachi ward, Tokyo:
Quote Quote by tsutsuji View Post
http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/2011...350041000.html 3.99 μSv/h was found in an Adachi ward survey on 17 October, 5 cm above ground near a swimming pool equipment room in Higashifuchie primary school.
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T111019004399.htm (English) "Soil to a depth of 10 centimeters in a one-square-meter area around the drainpipe [where 3.99 μSv/h had been found on 17 October] was removed, put in a bag and buried in a hole 1.2 meters deep at a different location at the school."

http://www.city.adachi.tokyo.jp/010/d00400047.html (and http://www.city.adachi.tokyo.jp/010/...tihyo_1019.pdf Map of measurement points). 6 additional locations were checked on 19 October at Higashifuchie school. 3.61 μSv/h was found 5 cm above ground at a rainwater gully near the entrance of the gymnasium (see circled number 24 on the map). After high pressure washing of the gully and installation of a concrete cover, the radiation dropped to below 0.25 μSv/h at 50 cm above ground. A temporary enclosure was set up to prevent people from approaching. The earth clogged inside the gully will be removed tomorrow or later. More details are provided about the other finds and countermeasures.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/kyoiku/news...OYT8T00666.htm The number of locations in the Adachi ward where high levels of radiation might be found and which the ward has began to survey and clean is 800. According to a ward official, completing this work "will take a considerable amount of time". At Sano district learning center, which is one of the five locations checked on 17 October, the radiation was still high with 0.31 μSv/h after cleaning, and the ward is considering asphalt removal.
NUCENG
NUCENG is offline
#386
Oct19-11, 02:52 PM
Sci Advisor
P: 916
Quote Quote by Sorai View Post
Yes, that was my question. But it seems they are just reporting total releases without conversion. Cs-134 and Cs-137, according to the new version of the roadmap: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp...s/111017e3.pdf [page 14]
If they were reporting the results in terms of dose (Sv or Gray) it would probably be a dose equivalent value. Since they are reporting it simply using Bq it is most likely a raw reading from a counter type of instrument. This measures the total disintegrations in its sensitivity band.
tsutsuji
tsutsuji is offline
#387
Oct20-11, 11:25 AM
PF Gold
P: 1,220
Fukushima:
http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/2011...409211000.html The ministry of education and science publishes the result of a river water and well water survey in 50 locations mostly in the North-West of the plant, which was performed in two phases before and after the tsuyu rains. Although there was a worry that the rains could carry radioactive substances into ground water or rivers, no big radioactivity variation was observed. Strontium was detected in 10 locations, but in low concentrations.

http://radioactivity.mext.go.jp/ja/d...600_102001.pdf Survey of radioactive substance migrations in rivers and well waters

Miyagi:
http://www.47news.jp/CN/201110/CN2011102001000849.html A measurement of 4 ~ 5 μSv/h under a rainspout in the land of a private house was confirmed by town employees on 18 October in Yamamoto, Miyagi prefecture, 60 km north of the plant. On 20 October the maximum air radiation measured in that town was 0.33 μSv/h.

Kanto Region:
http://www.47news.jp/CN/201110/CN2011101901000762.html Greenpeace surveyed fish and seafood sold in 17 supermarkets in the Kanto area. All results are below the government limit of 500 Bq/kg. The highest radiation was 88 Bq/kg found in wakasagi fish (Hypomesus nipponensis) caught in Ibaraki prefecture and sold in a Saitama supermarket.

Tochigi:
http://mainichi.jp/area/tochigi/news...40184000c.html Starting on 19 October with 8 nursery schools, Nasu city (Tochigi prefecture) is carrying out a hotspot removal work in schools, streets used by schoolchildren and public facilities, that will take until March. The radiation behind a nursery school building was reduced from 0.74 to 0.3 μSv/h. Radiations can be reduced by one half by cutting branches of trees. Earth removal is often more effective than high pressure washing.

Gunma:
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/gun...OYT8T00105.htm The results of a radiation monitoring and cleaning work in 11 schools have been announced by Maebashi city's relevant city council commision. The highest found radiation was 0.561 μSv/h. Cleaning work such as removing mud from side ditches below gutters or removing fallen leaves enabled to bring radiations to about 0.2 μSv/h.

Saitama:
http://www.nikkansports.com/general/...20-852625.html 0.68 μSv/h was found at 5 cm above ground on 20 October in a junior high school in Saitama city, Saitama prefecture. Earth removal will be performed. This will be the first time in a Saitama city school.

http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...5340002-n1.htm Kawaguchi city, in Saitama prefecture has decided to abandon its self-decided standard of 0.31 μSv/h, which was based on the ICRP's 1.64 mSv/year. Instead it will use the standard defined on 10 October by the ministry of environment, 0.23 μSv/h. About two past measurements showing radiations above the new standard, the city announced that "the surrounding areas are not above the standard, so they do not require cleaning".

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/kyoiku/news...OYT8T00785.htm A rainspout, side ditch survey of 7 prefectoral high schools and two prefectoral parks, where relatively high radiation figures had been obtained during a preceding survey in July, was started on 19 October. The results will be announced on 24 October, and available on the Saitama prefecture website.

Chiba:
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/kyoiku/news...OYT8T00921.htm Chiba prefecture started on 17 October a new survey of 51 prefectoral schools in the Tokatsu area in response to the new 1 μSv/h target value indicated by the ministry of education. Choosing 5 locations in each schoolyard, measurements will be made at 0.5 and 1 metre above ground. It will take until the end of November. On 17 October, the highest value was 0.36 μSv/h.

http://www.nikkansports.com/general/...20-852641.html 3.2 μSv/h was found in a park in Matsudo, Chiba prefecture. After cleaning it became 0.3 μSv/h. The city will start checking 350 locations for hotspots at the end of this month.

http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...9570002-n1.htm Funabashi city announced on 20 October that it found 0.40 and 0.31 μSv/h respectively at a nursery school and a park on 19 October. On 13 October 1.55 μSv/h had been found in a park. The city plans to check 965 facilities within this fiscal year.

Tokyo:
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/tok...OYT8T00095.htm: Kastushika ward announced it found a maximum of 0.67 μSv/h at 5 cm above ground in a survey performed on 19 and 20 October at 32 locations in the streets. Arguing that it is not a radiation level "bearing consequences on everyday life" and that it is "afraid of harming the rights and interests" of local inhabitants, the ward does not want to publicly release the locations of the measurements, nor to inform the local inhabitants. That survey was a response to the finding of radiations higher than 2 μSv/h by a citizen group. While the citizen group measured in private lands, the ward measured in the nearby public streets. The citizen group criticises the ward's response as a "neglectful attitude" as regards the ward citizens' safety.

Kanagawa:
http://news.kanaloco.jp/localnews/article/1110200047/ Sagamihara city (Kanagawa prefecture) released on 20 October the results of a survey at all of the city's primary schools. 29 locations in 16 schools were above the 0.23 μSv/h standard. The survey was started on 11 October, focusing on locations such as below rainspouts where there is a probability of presence of hotspots. The two highest measurements at 5 cm above ground were found at two primary schools with 0.62 μSv/h. After earth removal, the removed earth is stored in locations children do not have access to. The checking of junior high schools will start on 19 October. That of kindergartens will start on 20 October.

http://news.kanaloco.jp/localnews/article/1110200031/ 0.24 μSv/h was found below a gutter between the gymnasium and the classroom building in a primary school in Atsugi, Kanagawa prefecture. As this is higher than the city's 0.19 μSv/h standard, earth and fallen leaves were removed, put in a double layer of vinyl bags and stored in a warehouse. As a result of the earth removal the radiation dropped to 0.09 μSv/h. It was the first time that a higher than standard spot was found since the city started inspecting schools on 14 October.

http://news.kanaloco.jp/localnews/article/1110200039/ In a primary school in Odawara city, it was decided on 20 October to bury the polluted earth in a 1.3 m deep hole in the schoolyard, using an excavator. A sheet is put at the bottom of the hole, then the vinyl bags with polluted earth are put on the sheet, then a second sheet is put on the bags, and then the hole is filled with earth again. When that was finished, the radiation nearby was 0.06 μSv/h which is hardly different from elsewhere in the school. The same will be done at the other school where radiation was found above standard, and also in the four other school that were below the standard.

Nagano:
http://www.chunichi.co.jp/article/na...002000115.html Nagano city (Nagano prefecture) made a survey of side ditches and similar locations at 62 schools and parks from 11 October to 18 October. In one place the radiations were 0.36, 0.14, and 0.09 μSv/h at respectively 5, 50 and 100 cm above ground and it was marked as a no entry zone with a temporary enclosure. Cleaning will be performed after receiving instructions from the prefectoral or national administration. The other 61 places were measured between 0.05 and 0.14 μSv/h. 1.7 μSv/h had been found earlier this month in Karuizawa city (same prefecture).

http://www.shinmai.co.jp/news/201110...090022000.html As a result of checking 9 locations where rainwater is falling, a 2.80 μSv/h hotspot and a 1,18 μSv/h hotspot were found at Oga Hall, a concert hall in Karuizawa, Nagano prefecture. After removing a 10 cm layer of gravel, washing the mud, and filling with new pebble gravel, the radiation dropped to 0.20 and 0.10 μSv/h.

http://news24.jp/nnn/news8841175.html Video of the cleaning of a 2.2 μSv/h hotspot found on 19 October in a kindergarten in Karuizawa. It is not decided yet how to dispose of the generated waste.
Gary7
Gary7 is offline
#388
Oct20-11, 08:27 PM
P: 74
Awesome work, Tsutsuji. Very much appreciated.
tsutsuji
tsutsuji is offline
#389
Oct20-11, 09:42 PM
PF Gold
P: 1,220
Thanks.

http://ramap.jaea.go.jp/map/ A website with the most detailed maps, based on the ministry of education and science data.
zapperzero
zapperzero is offline
#390
Oct21-11, 02:48 AM
P: 1,030
Quote Quote by tsutsuji View Post

Hagashimurayama, Tokyo:

http://mainichi.jp/select/jiken/news...40090000c.html 2.153 μSv/h have been found in a ditch behind the lunchroom in a primary school in Hagashimurayama, Tokyo metropolis. The city surveyed 22 schools on 18 October and found radiations of 0.19 μSv/h and higher at 8 schools and removed the contaminated mud. The mud was then temporarily buried inside school premises. The city mayor announced that the scope of the radiation surveys "will be extended with maximum efforts".


Adachi ward, Tokyo:

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T111019004399.htm (English) "Soil to a depth of 10 centimeters in a one-square-meter area around the drainpipe [where 3.99 μSv/h had been found on 17 October] was removed, put in a bag and buried in a hole 1.2 meters deep at a different location at the school."
So very few of these articles clearly say what is done with the rad waste after it is removed. Do you happen to know if there are government-provided instructions for cleanup and/or storage? Any designated dumping grounds?
tsutsuji
tsutsuji is offline
#391
Oct21-11, 08:07 AM
PF Gold
P: 1,220
Quote Quote by zapperzero View Post
So very few of these articles clearly say what is done with the rad waste after it is removed. Do you happen to know if there are government-provided instructions for cleanup and/or storage? Any designated dumping grounds?
The minister of education had promised a guideline and a telephone hotline a few days ago:

http://www.asahi.com/national/update...110210504.html The telephone hotline will be open from 24 October to the end of the year (see phone number in the Asahi article). The guideline will be posted on the ministry website. The target value to be used for hotspots is 1 μSv hotter than surroundings at one metre above ground. For example in Shinjuku, as the radiation is 0.056 μSv/h, a hot spot would be a measurement of 1.056 μSv/h or higher. According to the guideline, the reading should be made 30 seconds after starting measurement. If simple measures such as removing mud from side ditches, removing fallen leaves, cutting branches of trees have no effect, further inspection should be made in cooperation with local governments. If necessary, help can be received from the ministry of environment or the cabinet office. The new hotspot guideline applies to all prefectures except Fukushima prefecture.

I don't know if that guideline will say anything about how to dispose of the generated waste.

erratum (as underlined):
Quote Quote by tsutsuji View Post

http://news.kanaloco.jp/localnews/article/1110200039/(20 October) In a primary school in Odawara city, it was decided on 20 October to bury the leaf mold in a 1.3 m deep hole in the schoolyard, using an excavator. A sheet is put at the bottom of the hole, then the vinyl bags with leaf mold are put on the sheet, then a second sheet is put on the bags, and then the hole is filled with earth again. When that was finished, the radiation nearby was 0.06 μSv/h which is hardly different from elsewhere in the school. The same will be done at the other school where radiation was found above standard, and also in the four other school that were below the standard.
One needs to read the earlier news to understand what happened:

http://news.kanaloco.jp/localnews/article/1110190033/ : (19 October) On 19 October, Odawara city announced that 700 Bq/kg (above the 400 Bq/kg limit, Cs134 and Cs137 added together) had been found in leaf mold made at Kuno and Kataura primary schools. In August, the government issued an instruction requiring to stop using leaf mold in schools. The testing was made between 12 September and 6 October in 6 schools. Radiations were found at 4 schools, and at two schools they are above the limit. The volume at Kuno school is 2 m x 2 m x height 0.5 m. At Kataura, it is 3.2 x 1.8 x height 1 m. The leaves are surrounded by concrete plates, but there is no cover. The radiation was measured at both schools and found to be 0.07 μSv/h [near the leaf mold, I guess], which is not different from elsewhere in the school. As a precaution the leaf mold was covered with blue sheets. Leaves are gathered every autumn, left for one year, and then used in the schools' vegetable gardens. In April, the leaf mold from the past year was used. In July the harvested vegetables were served in dishes such as curry at a summer school event and served to 65 people.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kjaU1MKnw0I (TBS news of 19 October) : The video starts with the Odawara leaf mold, then goes to Higashimurayama, then citizens are shown gathering signatures in Arakawa ward in Tokyo, asking the ward to check hot spots. Arakawa ward is said to be the only ward in Tokyo that decided not to check hot spots. Then the video goes to Ota ward where 1.01 μSv/h was found at 5 cm above ground under a rainspout in a junior high school, then the 3.99 μSv/h (5 cm above ground) hotspot of Adachi ward's Higashifuchie school is shown. Both are evidence that Tokyo's other wards are inspecting hot spots. Arakawa ward was checked at one location by the Tokyo metropolis administration in June, and in 6 locations in August by a university. The ward says that because those measurements show that the radiations are at a secure level, it did not make further measurements. But the TBS journalist heard from an Arakawa ward primary school that 0.97 μSv/h had been found in the school and the school performed the cleaning by itself. When asked why they don't want to check radiations, the ward officials answered : "radiation measurements must be performed by specialists" and "the national government or Tokyo metropolis must set a standard".
rowmag
rowmag is offline
#392
Oct21-11, 10:07 AM
P: 209
Thanks again, tsutsuji. Your efforts are very much appreciated.

As for the method of disposal, our local school just dug a hole around back and buried the offending material there. In the absence of official guidance, there is not much other option.

I worry that such spots are not being durably marked for future decades. Before the meltdowns we already had stories of schools burying time capsules, which are meant to be found, but nobody remembers where they were buried a mere 20 years later. It would be nice if some standard sign (like a radiation sign) were encouraged to be buried with the waste, so that future excavators know what they have encountered.
tsutsuji
tsutsuji is offline
#393
Oct21-11, 11:50 AM
PF Gold
P: 1,220
http://mainichi.jp/select/wadai/news...40072000c.html 57.5 μSv/h was found in Kashiwa, Chiba prefecture, in an empty lot owned by the city and used for free as a public square by the local neighbourhood association, but it is suspected that it is not linked with the Fukushima accident. It was covered with sandbags and blue sheets and marked as a no-entry zone. The ministry of education and science will perform a detailed survey on 24 October.

http://www.tv-asahi.co.jp/ann/news/w...211021054.html The 57.5 μSv/h measurement was made 30 cm underground.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Srm6S7giW3A TBS video: the yellow sign on the Kashiwa hotspot reads 4.5 μSv/h at 1 m above ground and 7.6 μSv/h at 50 cm above ground. On the surface it was 20 μSv/h. Then they dug and found that the radiation increased. According to the city, because the radiation is higher underground than on the surface, it is difficult to think that this could be related to the Fukushima accident.

http://radioactivity.mext.go.jp/ja/i...006/index.html The new hotspot guideline's main web page. (The full guideline is at http://radioactivity.mext.go.jp/ja/i..._guideline.pdf ) (21 October 2011) (It applies to all prefectures except Fukushima prefecture)

http://www.meti.go.jp/press/2011/07/...110715009.html "basic thoughts as regards decontamination in the everyday life space in Fukushima prefecture" (15 July 2011). It includes http://www.meti.go.jp/press/2011/07/...10715009-2.pdf , which contains a few indications about the temporary storage of generated waste, mostly referring to http://www.env.go.jp/jishin/attach/f...shin110623.pdf "Guideline about the treatment of disaster waste in Fukushima prefecture" (23 June 2011). For example at the bottom, on page 13, the distances between temporary waste storage facilities and inhabited areas are recommended : waste with 8,000 ~ 20,000 Bq/kg of Cs134 and Cs137 added together should be at least 6 m away from inhabited areas. With 100,000 Bq/kg or above, the waste should be at least 70 m away from inhabited areas.
zapperzero
zapperzero is offline
#394
Oct21-11, 02:30 PM
P: 1,030
Quote Quote by rowmag View Post
Thanks again, tsutsuji. Your efforts are very much appreciated.

As for the method of disposal, our local school just dug a hole around back and buried the offending material there. In the absence of official guidance, there is not much other option.

I worry that such spots are not being durably marked for future decades. Before the meltdowns we already had stories of schools burying time capsules, which are meant to be found, but nobody remembers where they were buried a mere 20 years later. It would be nice if some standard sign (like a radiation sign) were encouraged to be buried with the waste, so that future excavators know what they have encountered.
There are GPS receivers. Someone could surely mark the spot on a map? Perhaps a concerned citizen could put a placemark on google earth or something?
tsutsuji
tsutsuji is offline
#395
Oct21-11, 04:39 PM
PF Gold
P: 1,220
Tokyo:
http://mainichi.jp/select/science/ne...40141000c.html Shinjuku ward (Tokyo) announced that the presence of a 25 g bottle, filled to one third (that should make 8 g) of uranyl sulfate, covered with a lead sheet, in the science preparation room of a junior high school, was reported by a former teacher. The radiation around the bottle was 0.14 ~0.17 μSv/h. The former teacher remembered about this when the radium was found in Setagaya. The possession of uranyl sulfate should have been notified to the authorities as is required by law. According to the former teacher, the manufacturer refused to take the bottle back ten years ago when the school requested it to do so, so it stayed at school.

http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...2360008-n1.htm 1.247 μSv/h, 0.858 μSv/h and 0.319 μSv/h were found in 3 of the 6 schools that were checked in Higashikurume city, Tokyo metropolis. Monitoring and, if needed, cleaning will be performed in all of the city's 21 schools.

Kanagawa:
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...2190005-n1.htm 0.75 μSv/h, 0.77 μSv/h, and 0.83 μSv/h were found 1 cm above ground at three schools in Yokohama's Totsuka ward. All three are above Yokohama city's 0.59 μSv/h standard. After cleaning 0.08 μSv/h, 0.06 μSv/h and 0.30 μSv/h were measured. 20 locations in 18 schools in 9 of Yokohama's wards were found to be above the standard so far, as 80% of Yokohama's schools have already been checked. Checking the remaining schools will take until the end of this month.

http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...2220006-n1.htm Yokohama's resources and environment agency has started checking facilities which are accessed by the public on occasions such as study tours. 0.81 μSv/h (above Yokohama city's 0.59 μSv/h standard) was found 1 cm above ground near a warehouse, close to the local sport field, in the premises of a refuse collection office. As the warehouse contains baseball equipment, it was possible that children might have approached the hot spot.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/kan...OYT8T01341.htm Dried shiitake mushrooms grown in Sagamihara city have been found above the 500 Bq/kg limit. Sales are stopped.

Saitama:
Quote Quote by tsutsuji View Post
http://www.nikkansports.com/general/...20-852625.html 0.68 μSv/h was found at 5 cm above ground on 20 October in a junior high school in Saitama city, Saitama prefecture. Earth removal will be performed. This will be the first time in a Saitama city school.
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/kyoiku/news...OYT8T00647.htm On 14 October, 0.60 μSv/h had been found at the bottom of a Japanese zelkova (elm-like tree) in a park in Saitama city and the city had decided... to do nothing saying that it does not bear consequences on health. As a result of the discrepancy between the measures taken in the park and in the junior high school, the City announced that a uniform guideline would be provided between November 1 and November 10. The city's 164 schools and kindergartens will be checked.

http://mainichi.jp/area/saitama/news...40280000c.html 97 brands of tea, out of a total of 1081 brands tested, were found above the 500 Bq/kg limit, Saitama prefecture announced on 19 October.

Ibaraki:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ZPIKa4IaeU (TBS) 1040 Bq/kg was found in kuritake mushrooms grown in Kanuma city. All thirteen kuritake farmers of Kanuma are stopping the sales. The farmer where the 1040 Bq/kg sample was found had already sold 26 kg on the local market.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/toc...OYT8T01458.htm (17 October) 29600 Bq/kg (above the 400 Bq/kg limit) was found in leaf mold used by students to grow seedlings at an agriculture and forestry high school in Kanuma. 70 bags (the volume of one bag is 40 litre) were bought in June and July. 22 bags were not used. The radiation near the seedlings was 0.05 ~ 0.10 μSv/h. Above unused bags, it was 1 μSv/h. The leaf mold has been used for 3 months by 150 students.

http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/ib...202000065.html Kujikawa river (which flows in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures) is a famous fishing spot for ayu. The number of tourists and anglers has dropped by one half. The radiation in ayu was found to be 88 Bq/kg (below the 500 Bq/kg limit).

Tochigi:
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/toc...OYT8T01349.htm Nameko mushrooms grown in Nasushiobara city were found with 619 Bq/kg (above the 500 Bq/kg limit). Sales are stopped.
zapperzero
zapperzero is offline
#396
Oct22-11, 06:19 AM
P: 1,030
Quote Quote by tsutsuji View Post
Tokyo:
http://mainichi.jp/select/science/ne...40141000c.html Shinjuku ward (Tokyo) announced that the presence of a 25 g bottle, filled to one third (that should make 8 g) of uranyl sulfate, covered with a lead sheet, in the science preparation room of a junior high school, was reported by a former teacher. The radiation around the bottle was 0.14 ~0.17 μSv/h. The former teacher remembered about this when the radium was found in Setagaya. The possession of uranyl sulfate should have been notified to the authorities as is required by law. According to the former teacher, the manufacturer refused to take the bottle back ten years ago when the school requested it to do so, so it stayed at school.

http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...2360008-n1.htm 1.247 μSv/h, 0.858 μSv/h and 0.319 μSv/h were found in 3 of the 6 schools that were checked in Higashikurume city, Tokyo metropolis. Monitoring and, if needed, cleaning will be performed in all of the city's 21 schools.

Kanagawa:
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...2190005-n1.htm 0.75 μSv/h, 0.77 μSv/h, and 0.83 μSv/h were found 1 cm above ground at three schools in Yokohama's Totsuka ward. All three are above Yokohama city's 0.59 μSv/h standard. After cleaning 0.08 μSv/h, 0.06 μSv/h and 0.30 μSv/h were measured. 20 locations in 18 schools in 9 of Yokohama's wards were found to be above the standard so far, as 80% of Yokohama's schools have already been checked. Checking the remaining schools will take until the end of this month.

http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news...2220006-n1.htm Yokohama's resources and environment agency has started checking facilities which are accessed by the public on occasions such as study tours. 0.81 μSv/h (above Yokohama city's 0.59 μSv/h standard) was found 1 cm above ground near a warehouse, close to the local sport field, in the premises of a refuse collection office. As the warehouse contains baseball equipment, it was possible that children might have approached the hot spot.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/kan...OYT8T01341.htm Dried shiitake mushrooms grown in Sagamihara city have been found above the 500 Bq/kg limit. Sales are stopped.

Saitama:


http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/kyoiku/news...OYT8T00647.htm On 14 October, 0.60 μSv/h had been found at the bottom of a Japanese zelkova (elm-like tree) in a park in Saitama city and the city had decided... to do nothing saying that it does not bear consequences on health. As a result of the discrepancy between the measures taken in the park and in the junior high school, the City announced that a uniform guideline would be provided between November 1 and November 10. The city's 164 schools and kindergartens will be checked.

http://mainichi.jp/area/saitama/news...40280000c.html 97 brands of tea, out of a total of 1081 brands tested, were found above the 500 Bq/kg limit, Saitama prefecture announced on 19 October.

Ibaraki:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ZPIKa4IaeU (TBS) 1040 Bq/kg was found in kuritake mushrooms grown in Kanuma city. All thirteen kuritake farmers of Kanuma are stopping the sales. The farmer where the 1040 Bq/kg sample was found had already sold 26 kg on the local market.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/toc...OYT8T01458.htm (17 October) 29600 Bq/kg (above the 400 Bq/kg limit) was found in leaf mold used by students to grow seedlings at an agriculture and forestry high school in Kanuma. 70 bags (the volume of one bag is 40 litre) were bought in June and July. 22 bags were not used. The radiation near the seedlings was 0.05 ~ 0.10 μSv/h. Above unused bags, it was 1 μSv/h. The leaf mold has been used for 3 months by 150 students.

http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/ib...202000065.html Kujikawa river (which flows in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures) is a famous fishing spot for ayu. The number of tourists and anglers has dropped by one half. The radiation in ayu was found to be 88 Bq/kg (below the 500 Bq/kg limit).

Tochigi:
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/toc...OYT8T01349.htm Nameko mushrooms grown in Nasushiobara city were found with 619 Bq/kg (above the 500 Bq/kg limit). Sales are stopped.
Perhaps it would be better if sale and consumption of mushrooms were to be banned altogether in the affected areas?


Register to reply

Related Discussions
Japan Earthquake: nuclear plants Nuclear Engineering 14198
8.9 earthquake in Japan: tsunami warnings Current Events 671
Fukushima, Japan – Constructing an Effective First Response Nuclear Engineering 21
Radiation Contamination Thread re Fukushima Nuclear Engineering 19
Fukushima plant - should I leave Japan? Nuclear Engineering 10