
#1
May512, 12:18 AM

P: 369

Hi there,
I find that the term 'manifold' appears in many book of statistical physics or classical mechanics while talking about phase space. I try to search the explanation on online but it is quite abstract and hard to understand what's manifold really refers to. Can anyway explain this a bit with a simplest picture? Thanks 



#2
May512, 01:07 AM

Sci Advisor
P: 2,470

An ndimensional manifold, in simplest terms, is a representation of nonEuclidean (in general) ndimensional space that is locally Euclidean* at any point. In other words, you can define a local coordinate system anywhere, but not necessarily a global coordinate system.
Keep in mind, I am oversimplifying a bit. For formal definition, look up pretty much any topology text. 



#3
May512, 02:22 AM

P: 2,074

One can think of a Manifold as any set of objects which can be described by a set of coordinate charts (called an atlas). A coordinate chart is a mapping between your set of objects to some Euclidean space R^n (n is then the dimension of your manifold). There's really nothing much more to it than that. If you can describe your set of objects in such a way, then it's a manifold.




#4
May512, 09:51 PM

P: 8

What's manifold? 



#5
May612, 09:14 AM

Sci Advisor
P: 2,470





#6
May612, 02:16 PM

Math
Emeritus
Sci Advisor
Thanks
PF Gold
P: 38,900

A "manifold" is a geometric object that is locally Euclidean. More precisely, an n dimensional manifold is a topological space, together with a set of "pairs", [itex]\{(M_\alpha, \phi_\alpha)\}[/itex], in which one member of each pair, [itex]M_\alpha[/itex], is an open set and the other member, [itex]\phi_\alpha[/itex], is a continuous function from [itex]M_\alpha[/itex] to R^{n}.
We require, further, that if p is any point in the manifold there exist at least one [itex]\alpha[/itex] such that p is in [itex]M_\alpha[/itex] ( the open sets cover the manifold). We require, further, that in the intersection of two such sets, [itex]M_\alpha[/itex] and [itex]M_\beta[/itex], [itex]\phi_\alpha o\phi_\beta[/itex] be a homeomorphism from R^{n} to itself. In order to have a differentiable manifold, we require that, in the intersection of [itex]M_\alpha[/itex] and [itex]M_\beta[/itex], both [itex]\phi_\alpha o \phi_\beta[/itex] and [itex]\phi_\beta o\phi_\alpha[/itex] be differentiable. 



#7
May612, 06:12 PM

Sci Advisor
P: 2,470

Halls, OP states that he looked at former definitions. I think he was looking for a simpler illustration.




#8
May612, 07:12 PM

Homework
Sci Advisor
HW Helper
Thanks ∞
P: 9,215

As I read it, the individual functions are required to be homeomorphisms. The composition of one with the inverse of another then is automatically a homeomorphism. Going back to the original question, maybe some examples help. The mapping of the surface of the earth to flat maps by carving it into overlapping regions is an obvious one. 


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