This is just your interpretation of the quote. The Summary does not equal the quote. The quote stands (or at least can stand) on its own. Anyway, whatever Feynman meant, your specific use of his quote ("Exactly, the twin-slit experiment “has in it the heart of quantum mechanics. In reality, it contains the only mystery.” ") left no doubt that you were talking about "the twin-slit experiment." It turns out you had in mind something else. Well, I am no neurosurgeon, I could not read your thoughts:-)
I gave my opinion in post 10 in this thread (question 5).
As I said, I am not trying to deduce too much from the Couder experiment, but I think it is an instructive classical analogy of the quantum experiment. As a result, people who believe that features of the quantum two-slit experiment cannot be reproduced in classical mechanics (and there are a lot of such people) have to offer more sophisticated arguments. I should say that my approach to interpretation of quantum theory is quite different: I only consider systems of interacting matter and electromagnetic fields. On the other hand, this approach gave a surprising interpretation-independent spin-off: it turned out that the Dirac equation in an arbitrary electromagnetic field is generally equivalent to a fourth-order PDE for just one (complex or real) component.
I don’t know about “severely”, but yes, I think, strictly speaking, standard quantum theory is indeed flawed, and, judging by your posts elsewhere, you know that it is so: there is the measurement problem, in particular, the contradiction between unitary evolution and the theory of quantum measurements, e.g., the projection postulate. You know very well that I did not discover or invent this problem:-).
Well, I also go to conferences on quantum foundations (I have been at four this year:-) , but this was a fluctuation:-) ), but it is difficult for me to say what the community believes or does not believe. Your assessment is probably correct, but that does not necessarily mean that standard quantum theory is immaculate:-) Thanks god, I don’t need to explain to you that the measurement problem does exist:-) You said that we're in a very tiny minority, but it looks to me that everybody is in minority in quantum foundations: I’d say there are at least three mainstream interpretations (Copenhagen, Many Worlds, and “shut up and calculate”) and a lot of non-mainstream ones. This situation suggests that there is no satisfactory interpretation so far.
Probably not, although there were and there are quite a few outstanding physicists who are not happy about mainstream interpretations. Again, the issue of interpretation cannot be decided by a popular vote. There is some steady incremental progress in foundations, both in theory and experiment, and I don’t think the final destination is a sure bet. We all will have to live with future progress, whether we’ll like what we’ll see in the future or not.