Intuitive content of Loop GravityRovelli's programby marcus Tags: abstracts, arxiv, bibliography, content, current research, hyperlinks, intuitive, loop quantum gravity 

#1855
Dec412, 09:07 AM

P: 240

Not really related!. But interesting.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.0107 On the Foundations of the Theory of Evolution Diederik Aerts, Stan Bundervoet, Marek Czachor, Bart D'Hooghe, Liane Gabora, Philip Polk, Sandro Sozzo (Submitted on 1 Dec 2012) Darwinism conceives evolution as a consequence of random variation and natural selection, hence it is based on a materialistic, i.e. matterbased, view of science inspired by classical physics. But matter in itself is considered a very complex notion in modern physics. More specifically, at a microscopic level, matter and energy are no longer retained within their simple form, and quantum mechanical models are proposed wherein potential form is considered in addition to actual form. In this paper we propose an alternative to standard Neodarwinian evolution theory. We suggest that the starting point of evolution theory cannot be limited to actual variation whereupon is selected, but to variation in the potential of entities according to the context. We therefore develop a formalism, referred to as Context driven Actualization of Potential (CAP), which handles potentiality and describes the evolution of entities as an actualization of potential through a reiterated interaction with the context. As in quantum mechanics, lack of knowledge of the entity, its context, or the interaction between context and entity leads to different forms of indeterminism in relation to the state of the entity. This indeterminism generates a nonKolmogorovian distribution of probabilities that is different from the classical distribution of chance described by Darwinian evolution theory, which stems from a 'actuality focused', i.e. materialistic, view of nature. We also present a quantum evolution game that highlights the main differences arising from our new perspective and shows that it is more fundamental to consider evolution in general, and biological evolution in specific, as a process of actualization of potential induced by context, for which its material reduction is only a special case. 



#1856
Dec412, 07:40 PM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

not QG but possibly of interest:
http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.0585 Cosmology with a spin Joao Magueijo, T.G. Zlosnik, T.W.B. Kibble (Submitted on 3 Dec 2012) Using the chiral representation for spinors we present a particularly transparent way to generate the most general spinor dynamics in a theory where gravity is ruled by the EinsteinCartanHolst action. In such theories torsion need not vanish, but it can be reinterpreted as a 4fermion selfinteraction within a torsionfree theory. The selfinteraction may or may not break parity invariance, and may contribute positively or negatively to the energy density, depending on the couplings considered. We then examine cosmological models ruled by a spinorial field within this theory. We find that while there are cases for which no significant cosmological novelties emerge, the selfinteraction can also turn a mass potential into an upsidedown Mexican hat potential. Then, as a general rule, the model leads to cosmologies with a bounce, for which there is a maximal energy density, and where the cosmic singularity has been removed. These solutions are stable, and range from the very simple to the very complex. 19 pages. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.0601 Lorentzian Manifolds and Causal Sets as Partially Ordered Measure Spaces Luca Bombelli, Johan Noldus, Julio Tafoya (Submitted on 4 Dec 2012) We consider Lorentzian manifolds as examples of partially ordered measure spaces, sets endowed with compatible partial order relations and measures, in this case given by the causal structure and the volume element defined by each Lorentzian metric. This places the structure normally used to describe spacetime in geometrical theories of gravity in a more general context, which includes the locally finite partially ordered sets of the causal set approach to quantum gravity. We then introduce a function characterizing the closeness between any two partially ordered measure spaces and show that, when restricted to compact spaces satisfying a simple separability condition, it is a distance. In particular, this provides a quantitative, covariant way of describing how close two manifolds with Lorentzian metrics are, or how manifoldlike a causal set is. 13 pages, 5 Figures 



#1857
Dec1012, 07:36 PM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.2204
Electric Time in Quantum Cosmology Stephon Alexander, Martin Bojowald, Antonino Marciano, David Simpson (Submitted on 10 Dec 2012) Effective quantum cosmology is formulated with a realistic global internal time given by the electric vector potential. New possibilities for the quantum behavior of spacetime are found, and the highdensity regime is shown to be very sensitive to the specific form of state realized. 19 pages, 5 figures. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.1821 Black hole thermodynamics under the microscope Kevin Falls, Daniel F. Litim (Submitted on 8 Dec 2012) A coarsegrained version of the effective action is used to study the thermodynamics of black holes, interpolating from largest to smallest masses. The physical parameter of the black hole are linked to the running couplings by thermodynamics, and the corresponding equation of state includes quantum corrections for temperature, specific heat, and entropy. If quantum gravity becomes asymptotically safe, the state function predicts conformal scaling in the limit of small horizon area, and bounds on black hole mass and temperature. A metricbased derivation for the equation of state, and quantum corrections to the thermodynamical, statistical, and phenomenological definition of entropy are also given. Further implications and limitations of our study are discussed. 24 pages, 3 figures http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.1755 Poincaré invariance and asymptotic flatness in Shape Dynamics Henrique Gomes (Submitted on 8 Dec 2012) Shape Dynamics is a theory of gravity that sheds refoliation invariance in favor of spatial Weyl invariance. It is a canonical theory, constructed from a Hamiltonian, 3+1 perspective. One of the main deficits of Shape Dynamics is that its Hamiltonian is only implicitly constructed as a functional of the phase space variables. In this paper we aim to achieve a new perspective on tackling this problem. For this, we write down the equations of motion for Shape Dynamics. Although there is still an implicit function in these equations of motion, we can make it explicit for particular solutions. In particular, we construct Shape Dynamics over a curve in phase space representing a Minkowski spacetime, and use this to show that in this case Shape Dynamics possesses Poincar\'e symmetry for appropriate boundary conditions. The proper treatment of such boundary conditions leads us to completely formulate Shape Dynamics for open manifolds in the asymptotically flat case. We study the charges arising for Shape Dynamics in flat asymptotic boundary conditions and find a new component for the energy charge. This new charge, when added to the usual ADM energy to make up the total energy for Shape Dynamics, is completely Weyl invariant. We then use the equations of motion once again to find a nontrivial solution of Shape Dynamics, consisting of a flat static Universe with a pointlike mass at the center. We calculate its energy and rederive the usual Schwarzschild mass. 22 pages 



#1858
Dec1112, 11:19 AM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1212.1930
A "Helium Atom" of Space: Dynamical Instability of the Isochoric Pentahedron C. E. ColemanSmith, B. Muller (Submitted on 9 Dec 2012) We present an analysis of the dynamics of the equifacial pentahedron on the KapovichMillson phase space under a volume preserving Hamiltonian. The classical dynamics of polyhedra under such a Hamiltonian may arise from the classical limit of the node volume operators in loop quantum gravity. The pentahedron is the simplest nontrivial polyhedron for which the dynamics may be chaotic. We consider the distribution of polyhedral configurations throughout the space and find indications that the borders between certain configurations act as separatrices. We examine the local stability of trajectories within this phase space and find that locally unstable regions dominate although extended stable regions are present. Canonical and microcanonical estimates of the KolmogorovSinai entropy suggest that the pentahedron is a strongly chaotic system. The presence of chaos is further suggested by calculations of intermediate time Lyapunov exponents which saturate to non zero values. 20 Pages, 19 Figures Berndt Müller of the physics department at Duke has around 10,000 cites to his several hundred published papers of which, interestingly, all but one or two have been outside grqc, mostly theoretical nuclear physics and highenergy phenomenology. I think this must certainly be his first LQGrelated. The paper cites another one (strongly related thematically) by Haggard, that was already reported in post #1852 of this thread: http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.7311 Pentahedral volume, chaos, and quantum gravity Hal M. Haggard (Submitted on 30 Nov 2012) We show that chaotic classical dynamics associated to the volume of discrete grains of space leads to quantal spectra that are gapped between zero and nonzero volume. This strengthens the connection between spectral discreteness in the quantum geometry of gravity and tame ultraviolet behavior. We complete a detailed analysis of the geometry of a pentahedron, providing new insights into the volume operator and evidence of classical chaos in the dynamics it generates. These results reveal an unexplored realm of application for chaos in quantum gravity. 5 pages, 4 figures It's interesting that a volume gap appears in several types of analysis. I see Müller came to Duke around 1990, prior to that was at Frankfurt. http://inspirehep.net/author/B.Muller.1/ 



#1859
Dec1212, 05:53 AM

P: 240

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.2332
Inferences about Interactions: Fermions and the Dirac Equation Kevin H. Knuth (Submitted on 11 Dec 2012) At a fundamental level every measurement process relies on an interaction where one entity influences another. The boundary of an interaction is given by a pair of events, which can be ordered by virtue of the interaction. This results in a partially ordered set (poset) of events often referred to as a causal set. In this framework, an observer can be represented by a chain of events. Quantification of events and pairs of events, referred to as intervals, can be performed by projecting them onto an observer chain, or even a pair of observer chains, which in specific situations leads to a Minkowski metric replete with Lorentz transformations. We illustrate how this framework of interaction events gives rise to some of the wellknown properties of the Fermions, such as Zitterbewegung. We then take this further by making inferences about events, which is performed by employing the process calculus, which coincides with the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics. We show that in the 1+1 dimensional case this results in the Feynman checkerboard model of the Dirac equation describing a Fermion at rest. 



#1860
Dec1212, 07:17 PM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.2852
Primordial tensor power spectrum in holonomy corrected OmegaLQC Linda Linsefors, Thomas Cailleteau, Aurelien Barrau, Julien Grain (Submitted on 12 Dec 2012) The holonomy correction is one of the main terms arising when implementing loop quantum gravity ideas at an effective level in cosmology. The recent construction of an anomaly free algebra has shown that the formalism used, up to now, to derive the primordial spectrum of fluctuations was not correct. This article aims at computing the tensor spectrum in a fully consistent way within this deformed and closed algebra. 5 pages, 6 figures 



#1861
Dec1712, 11:06 AM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.3527
Asymptotic silence in loop quantum cosmology Jakub Mielczarek (Submitted on 14 Dec 2012) The state of asymptotic silence, characterized by causal disconnection of the space points, emerges from various approaches aiming to describe gravitational phenomena in the limit of large curvatures. In particular, such behavior was anticipated by Belinsky, Khalatnikov and Lifgarbagez (BKL) in their famous conjecture put forward in the early seventies of the last century. While the BKL conjecture is based on purely classical considerations, one can expect that asymptotic silence should have its quantum counterpart at the level of a more fundamental theory of quantum gravity, which is the relevant description of gravitational phenomena in the limit of large energy densities. Here, we summarize some recent results which give support to such a possibility. More precisely, we discuss occurrence of the asymptotic silence due to polymerization of space at the Planck scale, in the framework of loop quantum cosmology. In the discussed model, the state of asymptotic silence is realized at the energy density ρ = ρ_{c}/2, where ρ_{c} is the maximal allowed energy density, being of the order of the Planck energy density. At energy densities ρ > ρ_{c}/2, the universe becomes 4D Euclidean space without causal structure. Therefore, the asymptotic silence appears to be an intermediate state of space between the Lorentzian and Euclidean phases. 4 pages, 3 figures, talk presented at the Multiverse and Fundamental Cosmology Conference, 1014 September, 2012, Szczecin, Poland http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4060 Black Hole Entropy from complex Ashtekar variables Ernesto Frodden, Marc Geiller, Karim Noui, Alejandro Perez (Submitted on 17 Dec 2012) In loop quantum gravity, the number N_{Γ}(a_{H}, γ) of microstates of a black hole for a given discrete geometry Γ depends on the socalled BarberoImmirzi parameter γ. Using a suitable analytic continuation of γ to complex values, we show that the number N_{Γ}(a_{H}, ±i) of microstates behaves as exp(a_{H}/(4 l_{p}^{2})) for large area a_{H} in the large spin semiclassical limit. Such a correspondence with the semiclassical BekensteinHawking entropy law points towards an unanticipated and remarkable feature of the original complex Ashtekar variables for quantum gravity. 5 pages http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.3614 Chiral description of ghostfree massive gravity Sergei Alexandrov, Kirill Krasnov, Simone Speziale (Submitted on 14 Dec 2012) We propose and study a new first order version of the ghostfree massive gravity. Instead of metrics or tetrads, it uses a connection together with Plebanski's chiral 2forms as fundamental variables, rendering the phase space structure similar to that of SU(2) gauge theories. The chiral description simplifies computations of the constraint algebra, and allows us to perform the complete canonical analysis of the system. In particular, we explicitly compute the secondary constraint and carry out the stabilization procedure, thus proving that in general the theory propagates 7 degrees of freedom, consistently with previous claims. Finally, we point out that the description in terms of 2forms opens the door to an infinite class of ghostfree massive bigravity actions. 25 pages http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.3062 Bananaworld: Quantum Mechanics for Primates Jeffrey Bub (Submitted on 13 Nov 2012) This is intended to be a serious paper, in spite of the title. The idea is that quantum mechanics is about probabilistic correlations, i.e., about the structure of information, insofar as a theory of information is essentially a theory of probabilistic correlations. To make this clear, it suffices to consider measurements of two binaryvalued observables, x with outcomes a = 0 or 1, performed by Alice in a region A, and y with outcomes b = 0 or 1 performed by Bob in a separated region B — or, to emphasize the banality of the phenomena, two ways of peeling a banana, resulting in one of two tastes. The imagined bananas of Bananaworld are nonstandard, with probabilistic correlations for peelings and tastes that lie outside the classical correlation polytope, which has the structure of a simplex. The 'no go' theorems tell us that we can't shoehorn these correlations into the classical simplex by supposing that something has been left out of the story. The nonclassical features of quantum mechanics, including the irreducible information loss on measurement, are shown to be generic features of nonsimplex theories. As far as the conceptual problems are concerned, we might as well talk about bananas. 23 pages, 4 figures http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.3606 Interpreting Bananaworld: A response to Bub's Quantum Mechanics for Primates Ulrich Mohrhoff (Submitted on 16 Dec 2012) The interpretative principle proposed by Bub in 1211.3062v1 [quantph] is justified only for all practical purposes (Bell's "FAPP trap"). An alternative interpretative principle is proposed. It brings to light those features of the quantum world because of which the fundamental theoretical framework of physics is a "mere" probability calculus, and it amply justifies Bohr's insistence that quantummechanical observables cannot be defined without reference to the experimental conditions in which they are measured. It implies that the spatial distinctions we make cannot be intrinsic to space, that regions "of space" must be realized by macroscopic objects, that the spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world is incomplete, that the positions of macroscopic objects (suitably defined) are definite in a nonclassical sense, and that unconditional factuality can be consistently attributed to them. 16 pages, response to 1211.3062 



#1862
Dec1912, 05:46 AM

P: 240

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4176
Empty Black Holes, Firewalls, and the Origin of BekensteinHawking Entropy Mehdi Saravani, Niayesh Afshordi, Robert B. Mann (Submitted on 17 Dec 2012) We propose a novel solution for the endpoint of gravitational collapse, in which spacetime ends (and is orbifolded) at a microscopic distance from black hole event horizons. This model is motivated by the emergence of singular event horizons in the gravitational aether theory, a semiclassical solution to the cosmological constant problem(s), and thus suggests a catastrophic breakdown of general relativity close to black hole event horizons. A similar picture emerges in fuzzball models of black holes in string theory, as well as the recent firewall proposal to resolve the information paradox. We then demonstrate that positing a surface fluid with vanishing energy density (but nonvanishing pressure) at the new boundary of spacetime, which is required by Israel junction conditions, yields a thermodynamic entropy that is identical to the BekensteinHawking area law for charged rotating black holes. To our knowledge, this is the first derivation of black hole entropy which only employs local thermodynamics. Finally, a model for the microscopic degrees of freedom of the surface fluid (which constitute the microstates of the black hole) is suggested, which has a finite, but Lorentzviolating, quantum field theory. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4274 Asymptotic Safety and Black Hole Thermodynamics D. Becker, M. Reuter (Submitted on 18 Dec 2012) We present recent results on the nonperturbative renormalization group flow of Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) on spacetime manifolds with boundaries. As an application, novel quantum gravity corrections to the thermodynamics of black holes are discussed. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4325 On quantum gravity, Asymptotic Safety, and paramagnetic dominance Andreas Nink, Martin Reuter (Submitted on 18 Dec 2012) We discuss the conceptual ideas underlying the Asymptotic Safety approach to the nonperturbative renormalization of gravity. By now numerous functional renormalization group studies predict the existence of a suitable nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point. We use an analogy to elementary magnetic systems to uncover the physical mechanism behind the emergence of this fixed point. It is seen to result from the dominance of certain paramagnetictype interactions over diamagnetic ones. Furthermore, the spacetimes of Quantum Einstein Gravity behave like a polarizable medium with a "paramagnetic" response to external perturbations. Similarities with the vacuum state of YangMills theory are pointed out. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4473 Statistical Entropy of a BTZ Black Hole from Loop Quantum Gravity Ernesto Frodden, Marc Geiller, Karim Noui, Alejandro Perez (Submitted on 18 Dec 2012) We compute the statistical entropy of a BTZ black hole in the context of threedimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity with a cosmological constant $\Lambda$. As in the fourdimensional case, a quantum state of the black hole is characterized by a spin network state. Now however, the underlying colored graph $\Gamma$ lives in a twodimensional spacelike surface $\Sigma$, and some of its links cross the black hole horizon, which is viewed as a circular boundary of $\Sigma$. Each link $\ell$ crossing the horizon is colored by a spin $j_\ell$ (at the kinematical level), and the length $L$ of the horizon is given by the sum $L=\sum_\ell L_\ell$ of the fundamental length contributions $L_\ell$ carried by the spins $j_\ell$ of the links $\ell$. We propose an estimation for the number $N^\text{BTZ}_\Gamma(L,\Lambda)$ of the Euclidean BTZ black hole microstates (defined on a fixed graph $\Gamma$) based on an analytic continuation from the case $\Lambda>0$ to the case $\Lambda<0$. In our model, we show that $N^\text{BTZ}_\Gamma(L,\Lambda)$ reproduces the BekensteinHawking entropy in the classical limit. This asymptotic behavior is independent of the choice of the graph $\Gamma$ provided that the condition $L=\sum_\ell L_\ell$ is satisfied, as it should be in threedimensional quantum gravity. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.3687 Time delays across saddles as a test of modified gravity Joao Magueijo, Ali Mozaffari (Submitted on 15 Dec 2012) Modified gravity theories can produce strong signals in the vicinity of the saddles of the total gravitational potential. In a subclass of these models this translates into diverging timedelays for echoes crossing the saddles. Such models arise from the possibility that gravity might be infrared divergent or confined, and if suitably designed they are very difficult to rule out. We show that Lunar Laser Ranging during an eclipse could probe the timedelay effect within meters of the saddle, thereby proving or excluding these models. Very Large Baseline Interferometry, instead, could target delays across the JupiterSun saddle. Such experiments would shed light on the infrared behaviour of gravity and examine the puzzling possibility that there might be wellhidden regions of strong gravity and even singularities inside the solar system. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.3699 Scaling up the extrinsic curvature in asymptotically flat gravitational initial data: Generating trapped surfaces Shan Bai, Niall Ó Murchadha (Submitted on 15 Dec 2012) The existence of the initial value constraints means that specifying initial data for the Einstein equations is nontrivial. The standard method of constructing initial data in the asymptotically flat case is to choose an asymptotically flat 3metric and a transversetracefree (TT) tensor on it. One can find a conformal transformation that maps these data into solutions of the constraints. In particular, the TT tensor becomes the extrinsic curvature of the 3slice. We wish to understand how the physical solution changes as the free data is changed. In this paper we investigate an especially simple change: we multiply the TT tensor by a large constant. One might assume that this corresponds to pumping up the extrinsic curvature in the physical initial data. Unexpectedly, we show that, while the conformal factor monotonically increases, the physical extrinsic curvature decreases. The increase in the conformal factor however means that the physical volume increases in such a way that the ADM mass become unboundedly large. In turn, the blowup of the mass combined with the control we have on the extrinsic curvature allows us to show that trapped surfaces, i.e., surfaces that are simultaneously future and past trapped, appear in the physical initial data. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.3698 Scaling up the extrinsic curvature in gravitational initial data Shan Bai, Niall Ó Murchadha (Submitted on 15 Dec 2012) Vacuum solutions to the Einstein equations can be viewed as the interplay between the geometry and the gravitational wave energy content. The constraints on initial data reflect this interaction. We assume we are looking at cosmological solutions to the Einstein equations so we assume that the 3space is compact, without boundary. In this article we investigate, using both analytic and numerical techniques, what happens when the extrinsic curvature is increased while the background geometry is held fixed. This is equivalent to trying to magnify the local gravitational wave kinetic energy on an unchanged background. We find that the physical intrinsic curvature does not blow up. Rather the local volume of space expands to accommodate this attempt to increase the kinetic energy. 



#1863
Dec1912, 05:50 AM

P: 240

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.3710
Displacing entanglement back and forth between the micro and macro domains Natalia Bruno, Anthony Martin, Pavel Sekatski, Nicolas Sangouard, Rob Thew, Nicolas Gisin (Submitted on 15 Dec 2012) Quantum theory is often presented as the theory describing the microscopic world, and admittedly, it has done this extremely well for decades. Nonetheless, the question of whether it applies at all scales and in particular at human scales remains open, despite considerable experimental effort. Here, we report on the displacement of quantum entanglement into the domain where it involves two macroscopically distinct states, i.e. two states characterised by a large enough number of photons to be seen, at least in principle, with our eyes and that could be distinguished using mere linear  coarsegrained  detectors with a high probability. Specifically, we start by the generation of entanglement between two spatially separated optical modes at the single photon level and subsequently displace one of these modes up to almost a thousand photons. To reliably check whether entanglement is preserved, the mode is redisplaced back to the single photon level and a well established entanglement measure, based on single photon detection, is performed. The ability to displace an entangled state from the micro to the macro domain and back again provides a fascinating tool to probe fundamental questions about quantum theory and holds potential for more applied problems such as quantum sensing. 



#1864
Dec1912, 08:55 PM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4773
Deformed General Relativity Martin Bojowald, George M. Paily (Submitted on 19 Dec 2012) Deformed special relativity is embedded in deformed general relativity using the methods of canonical relativity and loop quantum gravity. Phasespace dependent deformations of symmetry algebras then appear, which in some regimes can be rewritten as nonlinear Poincare algebras with momentumdependent deformations of commutators between boosts and time translations. In contrast to deformed special relativity, the deformations are derived for generators with an unambiguous physical role, following from the relationship between canonical constraints of gravity with stressenergy components. The original deformation does not appear in momentum space and does not give rise to nonlocality issues or problems with macroscopic objects. Contact with deformed special relativity may help to test loop quantum gravity or restrict its quantization ambiguities. 14 pages 



#1865
Dec2012, 07:23 PM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5166
Modeling black holes with angular momentum in loop quantum gravity Ernesto Frodden, Alejandro Perez, Daniele Pranzetti, Christian Roeken (Submitted on 20 Dec 2012) We construct a SU(2) connection formulation of Kerr isolated horizons. As in the nonrotating case, the model is based on a SU(2) ChernSimons theory describing the degrees of freedom on the horizon. The presence of a nonvanishing angular momentum modifies the admissibility conditions for spin network states. Physical states of the system are in correspondence with open intertwiners with total spin matching the angular momentum of the spacetime. 18 pages. http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5183 On the Architecture of Spacetime Geometry Eugenio Bianchi, Robert C. Myers (Submitted on 20 Dec 2012) We propose entanglement entropy as a probe of the architecture of spacetime in quantum gravity. We argue that the leading contribution to this entropy satisfies an area law for any sufficiently large region in a smooth spacetime, which, in fact, is given by the BekensteinHawking formula. This conjecture is supported by various lines of evidence from perturbative quantum gravity, simplified models of induced gravity and loop quantum gravity, as well as the AdS/CFT correspondence. 8 pages, 1 figure http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5246 Gravitational origin of the weak interaction's chirality Stephon Alexander, Antonino Marciano, Lee Smolin (Submitted on 20 Dec 2012) We present a new unification of the electroweak and gravitational interactions based on the joining the weak SU(2) gauge fields with the left handed part of the spacetime connection, into a single gauge field valued in the complexification of the local Lorentz group. Hence, the weak interactions emerge as the right handed chiral half of the spacetime connection, which explains the chirality of the weak interaction. This is possible, because, as shown by Plebanski, Ashtekar, and others, the other chiral half of the spacetime connection is enough to code the dynamics of the gravitational degrees of freedom. This unification is achieved within an extension of the Plebanski action previously proposed by one of us. The theory has two phases. A parity symmetric phase yields, as shown by Speziale, a bimetric theory with eight degrees of freedom: the massless graviton, a massive spin two field and a scalar ghost. Because of the latter this phase is unstable. Parity is broken in a stable phase where the eight degrees of freedom arrange themselves as the massless graviton coupled to an SU(2) triplet of chirally coupled YangMills fields. It is also shown that under this breaking a Dirac fermion expresses itself as a chiral neutrino paired with a scalar field with the quantum numbers of the Higgs. 21 pages http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4987 Does Gravity's Rainbow induce Inflation without an Inflaton? Remo Garattini, Mairi Sakellariadou (Submitted on 20 Dec 2012) We study aspects of quantum cosmology in the presence of a modified spacetime geometry. In particular, within the context of Gravity's Rainbow modified geometry, motivated from quantum gravity corrections at the Planck energy scale, we show that the distortion of the metric leads to a WheelerDe Witt equation whose solution admits outgoing plane waves. Hence, a period of cosmological inflation may arise without the need for introducing an inflaton field. 13 pages http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5064 A note on the Holst action, the time gauge, and the BarberoImmirzi parameter Marc Geiller, Karim Noui (Submitted on 20 Dec 2012) In this note, we review the canonical analysis of the Holst action in the time gauge, with a special emphasis on the Hamiltonian equations of motion and the fixation of the Lagrange multipliers. This enables us to identify at the Hamiltonian level the various components of the covariant torsion tensor, which have to be vanishing in order for the classical theory not to depend upon the BarberoImmirzi parameter. We also introduce a formulation of threedimensional gravity with an explicit phase space dependency on the BarberoImmirzi parameter as a potential way to investigate its fate and relevance in the quantum theory. 22 pages http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5150 A loop quantum multiverse? Martin Bojowald (Submitted on 20 Dec 2012) Inhomogeneous spacetimes in loop quantum cosmology have come under better control with recent advances in effective methods. Even highly inhomogeneous situations, for which multiverse scenarios provide extreme examples, can now be considered at least qualitatively. 10 pages, 9 figures, based on a plenary talk given at Multicosmofun '12, Szeczin, Poland http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5233 Causal loop in the theory of Relative Locality LinQing Chen (Submitted on 20 Dec 2012) Relative locality is a proposal for describing the Planck scale modifications to relativistic dynamics resulting from nontrivial momentum space geometry. A simple construction of interaction processes shows that Relative Locality allows for existence of causal loops, which arises from the phase space structure of the theory. The general condition allowing such process to happen is studied. We showcase this when the geometry of momentum space is taken to be KappaPoincare momentum space. 5 pages, 3 figures brief mention: http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5226 NineYear Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results G. Hinshaw, D. Larson, E. Komatsu, D. N. Spergel, C. L. Bennett, J. Dunkley, M. R. Nolta, M. Halpern, R. S. Hill, N. Odegard, L. Page, K. M. Smith, J. L. Weiland, B. Gold, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, G. S. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright (Submitted on 20 Dec 2012) We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nineyear WMAP data, in conjunction with additional cosmological data sets... ... 31 pages, 12 figures 



#1866
Dec2312, 08:03 PM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5571
A positive formalism for quantum theory in the general boundary formulation Robert Oeckl (CCMUNAM) (Submitted on 21 Dec 2012) We introduce a new "positive formalism" for encoding quantum theories in the general boundary formulation, somewhat analogous to the mixed state formalism of the standard formulation. This makes the probability interpretation more natural and elegant, eliminates operationally irrelevant structure and opens the general boundary formulation to quantum information theory. 28 pages to clarify the relevance here is a quote from end of section 2 on page 4: "...The timeevolution operator U ̃ restricted to selfadjoint operators produces selfadjoint operators. Moreover, it is positive, i.e., it maps positive operators to positive operators. It also conserves the trace so that it maps mixed states to mixed states. These considerations suggest that positivity and order structure should play a more prominent role at a foundational level than say the Hilbert space structure of H or the algebra structure of the operators on it from which they are usually derived. Algebraic quantum field theory [7] is a great example of the fruitfulness of taking serious some of these issues. There, one abandons in fact the notion of Hilbert spaces in favor of more flexible structures built on C∗algebras. Also, positivity plays a crucial role there in the concept of state." http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5572 On the nogravity limit of gravity J. KowalskiGlikman, M. Szczachor (Submitted on 21 Dec 2012) We argue that Relative Locality may arise in the no gravity G→0 limit of gravity. In this limit gravity becomes a topological field theory of the BF type that, after coupling to particles, may effectively deform its dynamics. We briefly discuss another no gravity limit with a self dual ground state as well as the topological ultra strong G→∞ one. 3 pages. Based on a talk given at the 13th Marcel Grossmann Meeting 



#1867
Dec2712, 06:29 AM

P: 240

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5630
Infinite Shannon entropy Valentina Baccetti (Victoria University of Wellington), Matt Visser (Victoria University of Wellington) (Submitted on 21 Dec 2012) Even if a probability distribution is properly normalizable, its associated Shannon (or von Neumann) entropy can easily be infinite. We carefully analyze conditions under which this phenomenon can occur. Roughly speaking, this happens when arbitrarily small amounts of probability are dispersed into an infinite number of states; we shall quantify this observation and make it precise. We develop several particularly simple, elementary, and useful bounds, and also provide some asymptotic estimates, leading to necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of infinite Shannon entropy. We go to some effort to keep technical computations as simple and conceptually clear as possible. In particular, we shall see that large entropies cannot be localized in state space; large entropies can only be supported on an exponentially large number of states. We are for the time being interested in singlechannel Shannon entropy in the information theoretic sense, not entropy in a stochastic field theory or QFT defined over some configuration space, on the grounds that this simple problem is a necessary precursor to understanding infinite entropy in a field theoretic context. 



#1868
Dec3112, 07:42 PM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.6824
Black hole entanglement entropy and the renormalization group Ted Jacobson, Alejandro Satz (Submitted on 31 Dec 2012) We investigate the contributions of quantum fields to black hole entropy by using a cutoff scale at which the theory is described with a Wilsonian effective action. For both free and interacting fields, the total black hole entropy can be partitioned into a contribution derived from the gravitational effective action and a contribution from quantum fluctuations below the cutoff scale. In general the latter includes a quantum contribution to the Noether charge. We analyze whether it is appropriate to identify the rest with horizon entanglement entropy, and find several complications for this interpretation, which are especially problematic for interacting fields. 29 pages http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.6944 Boundary unitarity without firewalls Ted Jacobson (Submitted on 31 Dec 2012) Both AdS/CFT duality and more general reasoning from quantum gravity point to a rich collection of boundary observables that always evolve unitarily. The physical quantum gravity states described by these observables must be solutions of the spatial diffeomorphism and WheelerdeWitt constraints, which implies that the state space does not factorize into a tensor product of localized degrees of freedom. The recent "firewall" argument that unitarity of black hole Smatrix implies the presence of a highly excited quantum state near the horizon is based on such a factorization, hence is not applicable in quantum gravity. Comments: 7 pages http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.6821 Black holes and Hawking radiation in spacetime and its analogues Ted Jacobson (Submitted on 31 Dec 2012) These notes introduce the fundamentals of black hole geometry, the thermality of the vacuum, and the Hawking effect, in spacetime and its analogues. Stimulated emission of Hawking radiation, the transPlanckian question, short wavelength dispersion, and white hole radiation in the setting of analogue models are also discussed. No prior knowledge of differential geometry, general relativity, or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is assumed. 31 pages, 9 figures; to appear in the proceedings of the IX SIGRAV School on 'Analogue Gravity', Como (Italy), May 2011, eds. D. Faccio et. al. (Springer) 



#1869
Jan113, 06:14 AM

P: 240

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.6967
Entropic Inference: some pitfalls and paradoxes we can avoid Ariel Caticha (Submitted on 31 Dec 2012) The method of maximum entropy has been very successful but there are cases where it has either failed or led to paradoxes that have cast doubt on its general legitimacy. My more optimistic assessment is that such failures and paradoxes provide us with valuable learning opportunities to sharpen our skills in the proper way to deploy entropic methods. The central theme of this paper revolves around the different ways in which constraints are used to capture the information that is relevant to a problem. This leads us to focus on four epistemically different types of constraints. I propose that the failure to recognize the distinctions between them is a prime source of errors. I explicitly discuss two examples. One concerns the dangers involved in replacing expected values with sample averages. The other revolves around misunderstanding ignorance. I discuss the FriedmanShimony paradox as it is manifested in the threesided die problem and also in its original thermodynamic formulation. Comments: 14 pages, 1 figure. Invited paper presented at MaxEnt 2012, The 32nd International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, (July 1520, 2012, Garching, Germany) http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.6946 The Entropic Dynamics of Relativistic Quantum Fields Ariel Caticha (Submitted on 31 Dec 2012) The formulation of quantum mechanics within the framework of entropic dynamics is extended to the domain of relativistic quantum fields. The result is a nondissipative relativistic diffusion in the infinite dimensional space of field configurations. On extending the notion of entropic time to the relativistic regime we find that the field fluctuations provide the clock that sets the scale of duration. We also find that the usual divergences that affect all quantum field theories do not refer to the real values of physical quantities but rather to epistemic quantities invariably associated to unphysical probability distributions such as variances and other measures of uncertainty. Comments: 10 pages. Presented at MaxEnt 2012, The 32nd International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, (July 1520, 2012, Garching, Germany) 



#1870
Jan313, 01:13 PM

Sci Advisor
P: 8,005

http://arxiv.org/abs/1209.4779
On antiscreening in perturbative quantum gravity and resolving the Newtonian singularity Anja Marunovic, Tomislav Prokopec (Submitted on 21 Sep 2012) We calculate the quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential induced by a massless, nonminimally coupled scalar field on Minkowski background. We make use of the graviton vacuum polarization calculated in our previous work and solve the equation of motion nonperturbatively. When written as the quantumcorrected gauge invariant Bardeen potentials, our results show that quantum effects generically antiscreen the Newtonian singularity 1/r. This result supports the point of view that gravity on (super)Planckian scales is an asymptotically safe theory. In addition, we show that, in the presence of quantum fluctuations of a massless, (non)minimally coupled scalar field, dynamical gravitons propagate superluminally. The effect is, however, unbservably small and it is hence of academic interest only. 



#1871
Jan713, 07:59 PM

Astronomy
Sci Advisor
PF Gold
P: 22,800

http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.1264
Inflation as a prediction of loop quantum cosmology Linda Linsefors, Aurelien Barrau (Submitted on 7 Jan 2013) Loop quantum cosmology is known to be closely linked with an inflationary phase. In this article, we study quantitatively the probability for a long enough stage of slowroll inflation to occur, by assuming a minimalist massive scalar field as the main content of the universe. The phase of the field in its "prebounce" oscillatory state is taken as a natural random parameter. We find that the probability for a given number of inflationary efolds is quite sharply peaked around 145, which is indeed more than enough to solve all the standard cosmological problems. In this precise sense, a satisfactory inflation is therefore a clear prediction of loop gravity. In addition, we derive an original and stringent upper limit on the BarberoImmirzi parameter. The general picture about inflation, superinflation, deflation and superdeflation is also much clarified in the framework of bouncing cosmologies. 6 pages, 4 figures http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.0879 On unimodular quantum gravity Astrid Eichhorn (Submitted on 5 Jan 2013) Unimodular gravity is classically equivalent to standard Einstein gravity, but differs when it comes to the quantum theory: The conformal factor is nondynamical, and the gauge symmetry consists of transverse diffeomorphisms only. Furthermore, the cosmological constant is not renormalized. Thus the quantum theory is distinct from a quantization of standard Einstein gravity. Here we show that within a truncation of the full Renormalization Group flow of unimodular quantum gravity, there is a nontrivial ultravioletattractive fixed point, yielding a UV completion for unimodular gravity. We discuss important differences to the standard asymptoticsafety scenario for gravity, and provide further evidence for this scenario by investigating a new form of the gaugefixing and ghost sector. 10 pages, 1 figure brief mention: http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.1069 A Snapshot of Foundational Attitudes Toward Quantum Mechanics Maximilian Schlosshauer, Johannes Kofler, Anton Zeilinger (Submitted on 6 Jan 2013) ... Here, we present the results of a poll carried out among 33 participants of a conference on the foundations of quantum mechanics... 17 pages 3 figures 



#1872
Jan813, 08:27 PM

P: 1,923

http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.1538
Right about time? Sean Gryb, Flavio Mercati (Submitted on 8 Jan 2013) Have our fundamental theories got time right? Does size really matter? Or is physics all in the eyes of the beholder? In this essay, we question the origin of time and scale by reevaluating the nature of measurement. We then argue for a radical scenario, supported by a suggestive calculation, where the flow of time is inseparable from the measurement process. Our scenario breaks the bond of time and space and builds a new one: the marriage of time and scale. 


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