Feb1-06, 11:44 AM
I was wondering if Dark Energy, and Dark Matter, could be a product of quantum field particle-pair production? If you know of any links or papers supporting or invalidating my thoughts below, I'd love to hear about them!
Dark Energy makes up 73% of the universe, Dark Matter makes up 23% of the universe. The visible matter that we are familiar with, only makes up 4% of the universe.
It seems possible that the Dark Energy that causes the universe to inflate with accelerating speed, is some sort of quantum field phenomenon. If this is so, and the universe is expanding at a uniform rate at the quantum level, then the Hubble Constant (the rate of universal expansion) is not a fixed speed of universal linear expansion—instead, the Hubble Constant is a fixed rate of atomic-level space-dimension doubling of linear-size.
What does this mean? Consider these two illustrations.
If the universe always expanded at the current Hubble Constant rate, then the universe began 12 billion years ago, and steadily expanded outward at the same speed, until, after 12 billion years, it reached its current size. I believe some observations of objects that are very old, or very distant, create difficulties with this timeline limited to 12 billion years.
If the Hubble Constant refers to a rate of atomic-level space-dimension doubling of linear-size, then every 6 billion years, every cubic meter of space has doubled in all linear dimensions to a cube 2 meters across. In other words, every 6,000 kilometres of space grows in size by 1 millimetre every year. Using this calculation method, 6 billion years ago, the universe was 1/2 its current diameter, 12 billion years ago it was 1/4 its current diameter, and 18 billion years ago it was 1/8 its current diameter. Using this calculation method, 90 billion years takes us back to the beginning of the inflationary period, at the time the big bang plasma cooled into gas and photons became free to travel, when the universe was 350,000 years old. It is plausible that the earliest expansion of the universe was a thermal expansion more than an inflationary expansion. Then the universe slowly grew by expansion for 80 billion years, until Dark Energy and Dark Matter became the major constituents of the universe. Since then, the universe has doubled in size every 6 billion years and will continue to do so. The only explanation for this kind of space-time inflation is a process inherent to the nature of the quantum field. If this calculation is correct, then the universe should contain some very old stars, perhaps as old as 90 billion years.
If visible matter is such a small percentage of the universe, and the majority of the universe is Dark Energy and Dark Matter, why not consider that Dark Matter may also be a result of quantum field phenomena? The Dark Matter that surrounds the galaxies and causes them to float like fish in a fishbowl, what could it be? Indeed, Dark Matter and Dark Energy must absolutely be locked together, and result from a single process, if their proportions are to remain as now. If Dark Matter and Dark Energy result form 2 different processes, then perhaps some day, Dark Matter will overtake Dark Energy and become the major constituent of the universe, causing universal collapse. Or if Dark Energy is always increasing in proportion over Dark Matter, how could Dark Matter have ever come to such a great percentage of the universe, unless the universe started out mostly Dark Matter? Just as Dark Energy is not a Big Bang product, might it be that Dark Matter is not a Big Bang product either, as how could there be so much?
So what are possible candidates for quantum field phenomena resulting in Dark Energy and Dark Matter? The answer could be as simple as neutrino-anti-neutrino particle pair creation. Obviously, proton-anti-proton particle pairs quickly annihilate each other because they attract each other electrically. But neutrinos, which rarely interact with other particles, would rarely interact with their anti-neutrino pair, therefore there may be minimal losses over time due to annihilation. That would put the galaxies floating in a low density sea of anti-neutrinos! Would the occasional annihilations against matter particles be detected? As the quantum field overlaid by the universe produces its particle-pairs, the matter galaxies would gravitationally attract and slowly sweep up the particle pairs into great clouds of particles. Any long-lived, neutrally-charged particle would be a good candidate for quantum particle-pair production that produces Dark Matter, and small particles may have a better chance of avoiding annihilation of the anti-particles. Because Dark Matter is the sum of all quantum particle-pair creations that do not result in annihilation, there could be many classes of particles involved. If quantum particle-pair creation is truly the source of Dark matter, then the occasional annihilation of neutral anti-particles should be detectable.
So where does the Dark Energy come from in quantum particle-pair production? I suspect that matter created by quantum particle-pair production, has an unusual effect on space-time. Gravity is equated with space-time, and a new particle mass jumping out of the quantum field would contribute new gravity, and therefore new space-time, to the quantum continuum upon which the universe lies. The net effect of quantum particle-pair production is Dark Energy space-time inflation. As with Dark Matter, Dark Energy would be a net result of all quantum particle-pairs created. The question is, what mix of long-lived, neutral, small particles, would result in the proportions seen in the universe of 73% Dark Energy, and 23% Dark Matter?. Another question is: Would inflation be somewhat halted, or slowed, in the case of any particle annihilations?—Or does the conversion of quantum potential into either matter or annihilation energy result in the same space-time inflation? Development of appropriate mathematical models may help decide whether quantum particle-pair creation actually does influence space-time in an inflationary manner.
I find it fascinating to think that, perhaps, the most predominant attributes of the universe today, are not a results of the Big Bang, but rather, are a result of the quantum field that pre-existed the Big Bang.
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