# Griffiths E&M 3.33 write e-field of dipole moment in coordinate free form

 P: 202 1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Show that the electric field of a "pure" dipole can be written in the coordinate-free form $$E_{dip}(r)=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\frac{1}{r^3}[3(\vec p\cdot \hat r)\hat r-\vec p].$$ 2. Relevant equations Starting from $$E_{dip}(r)=\frac{p}{4\pi\epsilon_0r^3}(2\cos \hat r+\sin\theta \hat \theta)$$ 3. The attempt at a solution The equation immediately above assumes a spherical coordinate system such that p is oriented along z. We can therefore write $$\vec p=p\hat z$$ $$\hat z = \cos\theta \hat r - \sin\theta \hat \theta \implies \vec p=p\cos\theta\hat r-p\sin\theta\hat\theta$$ From equation 3.102 in the book we know that $\hat r\cdot \vec p=p\cos\theta$ Try as I might I don't know how to show, geometrically or via manipulation, that $$p\sin\theta\hat \theta=(\vec p \cdot \hat \theta)\hat \theta$$. From there it's easy to get to the desired result.
 P: 383 I find this problem is easier to see in reverse than forwards (that is, working from the solution to get the starting point) $$3(\mathbf{p}\cdot\hat{\mathbf{r}})\hat{\mathbf{r}}-\mathbf{p}=3p\cos\theta\hat{\mathbf{r}}-p\cos\theta\hat{\mathbf{r}}+p\sin\theta\hat{\boldsymbol{\theta}}=2p\cos \theta\hat{\mathbf{r}}+p\sin\theta\hat{\boldsymbol{\theta}}$$ which looks a lot like what you have in your relevant equations
P: 202
 Quote by jdwood983 I find this problem is easier to see in reverse than forwards (that is, working from the solution to get the starting point) $$3(\mathbf{p}\cdot\hat{\mathbf{r}})\hat{\mathbf{r}}-\mathbf{p}=3p\cos\theta\hat{\mathbf{r}}-p\cos\theta\hat{\mathbf{r}}+p\sin\theta\hat{\boldsymbol{\theta}}=2p\cos \theta\hat{\mathbf{r}}+p\sin\theta\hat{\boldsymbol{\theta}}$$ which looks a lot like what you have in your relevant equations
Well I guess that solves the problem. Seems a little anticlimactic. My professor recommended we draw a picture and show how things cancel out by dotting vectors together.

 P: 419 Griffiths E&M 3.33 write e-field of dipole moment in coordinate free form I was able to do it by using pictures...backwards. Here's how to derive the given equation from the desired equation. Let theta be the polar angle and p point toward theta=0. First draw the p vector and the r hat vector intersecting at some angle theta. Project p onto the r axis. $$\overrightarrow{p}\cdot \widehat{r}=pcos(\Theta )$$ Then draw the p vector (parallel to the original p vector) at some point at vector r from the origin (where the dipole is actually located). Resolve the p vector onto the (r, theta) coordinates. $$\widehat{p}=cos(\Theta )\widehat{r}+sin(\Theta )\left ( -\widehat{\Theta } \right )$$ Plugging those into the problem statement equation and doing some algebra gives you the equation you were supposed to start with. I'm sure you could just work through it backwards.
P: 383
 Quote by naele Well I guess that solves the problem. Seems a little anticlimactic. My professor recommended we draw a picture and show how things cancel out by dotting vectors together.
It is a little anticlimactic doing it backwards. I spent about 30 minutes trying to do the geometry forwards before I decided to do it backwards. When I saw the answer, my first thought was "That was it?"

As Jolb said, you can do it graphically if you draw the appropriate vectors, but I personally think it's easier to do it mathematically.

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