Why is the chromoshphere millions of degrees hotter than the surface of the sun? in a body that the heat should radiate from the centre isn't this highly unexpected? i have been looking into this and the only good explanation in a science journal is this one from Harvard Astrophysical Journal, Volume 633, Issue 1, pp. L57-L60. Which suggests that one of the reason the temparature is so high is due to electrical currents. there is plenty of documentation of electricity and birkeland currents playing an important role in space. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birkeland_current (with references) http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/n...ype=HTML&format=&high=42ca922c9c30343 It seems odd, what property of the sun would cause the temparature outside of itself to be millions of degrees hotter than its own surface? And how do we know that it is fuelled by a huge nuclear burning core? its not as if we can see beneath the photosphere to be sure. As far as i can see the best technique we have is helioseismology, but when you have papers like these from leading seismologists on Earth saying that even normal seismology is highly inaccurate- "It is concluded that the use of inference to amplify poor data must be made very transparent to the end user of the results, to avoid misleading appearances of accuracy. In many cases it may be best to abandon the quest for parameters altogether and admit that the data are inadequate." it raises doubts about the accuracy of helioseismology as there are more parameters involved than standard seismology, which would lead to a higher chance of misinterpretation of the data. Maybe, as the chromosphere is hotter than the surface of the sun, it is getting some of its power from particles outside via electric currents, as well as some from its core? that would explain why the chromosphere is so hot, and aslo why the part of the sun where you can see deepest into it (sunspots) are the coldest areas? this would also explain the filamentary structure of the corona, which is looked into in detail in this paper: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1963IAUS...16...35A and http://public.lanl.gov/alp/plasma/Perattpdf/PerattEvidenceCosmic.pdf I also found out the solar fusion model has not been fully tested. All the individual steps in the reaction have been achieved, but continous hydrogen / helium fusion has never been reproduced in the lab; 1. 1H + 1H → 2H + e+ + νe 2. e+ + e− → 2γ + 1.02 MeV 3. 2H + 1H → 3He + γ + 5.49 MeV 4. From here there are three possible paths to generate helium isotope 4He. all stages 1, 2, 3, 4 have individually been tested, but they have never been able to create the continual reaction hypothesized in the sun. any one know why?