Surface reconstructions of lattices

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In summary, the Au(111) crystal reorganizes at the surface to minimize stress and energy, while graphite does not exhibit this behavior. Graphite has sigma and delocalized pi bonds, while gold uses s orbitals for bonding. It is unclear if thermal energy is enough to overcome these bonds.
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jaejoon89
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Why does gold have a surface reconstruction but graphite does not?

The Au(111) crystal, when cut, reorganizes at the surface to minimize tensile stress and energy. Why doesn't graphite do this?
 
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What type of bonding is there in a sheet of graphite? What type is there in the gold [1,1,1] crystal? Is thermal energy (RT?) enough to overcome both or only one?
 
  • #3
Bonding in graphite would be sigma bonds, plus delocalized pi bonds... I'm not sure about gold (1,1,1). The electron configuration for Au is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1 so the s orbitals rather than the d orbitals participate in bonding - right? - so they form sigma bonds only? Or do you use a different model for transition metal elements? I'm really not sure how to think about this...
 

Related to Surface reconstructions of lattices

1. What is a surface reconstruction of a lattice?

A surface reconstruction of a lattice is a phenomenon that occurs when a crystal lattice structure is modified at the surface due to external forces or environmental factors. This results in a change in the atomic arrangement of the surface layer, creating a new surface structure.

2. What causes surface reconstructions of lattices?

Surface reconstructions can be caused by various factors such as temperature, pressure, chemical reactions, and interactions with other materials. These external influences can disrupt the balance of forces within the crystal lattice, resulting in a rearrangement of atoms at the surface.

3. How are surface reconstructions of lattices studied?

Surface reconstructions can be studied using techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray diffraction. These methods allow scientists to observe the atomic structure and changes at the surface with high resolution.

4. Can surface reconstructions be controlled?

Yes, surface reconstructions of lattices can be controlled and manipulated by carefully controlling the external conditions such as temperature, pressure, and exposure to other materials. This allows scientists to create specific surface structures with desired properties for various applications.

5. What are the applications of surface reconstructions of lattices?

Surface reconstructions have various applications in fields such as catalysis, thin film growth, and nanotechnology. They can also affect the properties of materials such as their conductivity, magnetism, and chemical reactivity, making them important to study and understand for material design and engineering.

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