What's left to see of the early Universe?

In summary, there is still some low frequency radio astronomy to be done in order to reach the "opaque universe" boundary where light could not propagate. However, with advancements such as the James Webb Telescope and Gravitational Wave detectors like LIGO, we are able to look through this boundary and see as far back in time as possible. This includes the "dark ages" period between the emission of the CMB and the formation of the first stars, which can be probed using low frequency radio telescopes. The goal is to examine density fluctuations and compare them to existing models in order to gain a better understanding of the early universe. Additionally, there are other interesting topics to explore, such as the cosmic neutrino background and lines in the
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SimplePrimate

In the detection of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation I understand there's still some low frequency radio astronomy left to do before hitting the 'opaque universe' boundary where/when light could not propagate. What, if anything, can we still hope see?
 
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The James Webb Telescope will allow us to see better up to the limit and Gravitational Wave detectors such as LIGO will let us look through it. We are looking to see as far back in time as we can. And I don't think we will run out of things to discover in any of our life times.
 
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I think what you are referring to is the following. There is a period after the emission of the CMB, and before the formation of the first stars, that is referred to as the "dark ages". During this time the universe was filled with cooling neutral hydrogen gas, with some helium as well. It is possible to probe this time by looking at the hydrogen 21cm line with low frequency radio telescopes. There are a number of efforts trying to do that, such as DARE, LOFAR, and others.

As to what we hope to see, ideally we can probe the density fluctuations of the universe as it expanded, and see if they agree with existing models.
 
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1. What evidence do we have of the early Universe?

Scientists have gathered evidence of the early Universe through various methods such as observing the cosmic microwave background radiation, studying the distribution of galaxies and clusters, and measuring the abundance of elements in the Universe. These pieces of evidence provide insights into the conditions and events that occurred in the early Universe.

2. How far back in time can we see in the early Universe?

The farthest we can see back in time is to about 380,000 years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was still in its infancy. This is when the cosmic microwave background radiation was released and can be observed today. Beyond this point, the Universe was too hot and dense for light to travel freely, making it impossible for us to see any further back in time.

3. What is the significance of studying the early Universe?

Studying the early Universe allows us to understand the fundamental laws of physics and how the Universe evolved over time. It also helps us to answer fundamental questions about the origin of the Universe, the formation of galaxies and structures, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. This knowledge can also lead to technological advancements and further our understanding of our place in the Universe.

4. How do we know the age of the Universe?

Scientists have determined the age of the Universe to be approximately 13.8 billion years old through various methods, including measuring the expansion rate of the Universe, studying the cosmic microwave background radiation, and observing the ages of the oldest stars in the Universe. These methods all point to a similar age, providing strong evidence for the age of the Universe.

5. Are there any remaining mysteries about the early Universe?

While we have made significant progress in understanding the early Universe, there are still many mysteries that remain. Some of these include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, the origin of cosmic inflation, and the reason for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe. Scientists continue to study and gather evidence to unravel these mysteries and gain a deeper understanding of the early Universe.

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