In string theory, if we have NN BCs along ##X^i, i = 1, \ldots, n-1##(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

and DD BCs along ##X^a, a = n, \ldots, 25## then you get, from ##\alpha^{i,a}_{-1}|0,p\rangle ##, ##n## massless vectors and ##24-n## massless scalars. I understand that for the first excited level, ##M^2=0## and so we have no mass, but what suggests that these are scalars or vectors? In the case where we have two branes separated by a distance ##\delta##, with find ##M^2\propto\delta^2## which, in addition to the vector/scalar nature of the excitations, I don't understand.

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# A Why are open strings vectors or scalars, or massive?

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