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jal is offline
Dec13-07, 12:14 PM
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Fulvio Melia
“We will show that, with the recent WMAP results (Spergel et al. 2003), our observational limit clearly corresponds to the distance beyond which the spacetime curvature prevents any signal from ever reaching us. An observer’s worldline must therefore always be restricted to the region R < R0, i.e., to radii bounded by the cosmic horizon, consistent with the corollary to Birkhoff’s theorem.
The restrictions on an observer’s worldlines should be set by the physical radius R0, beyond which no signal can reach her within a finite time, no matter what internal structure the spacetime may possess.

However, the effects of gravity travel at the speed of light, so what matters in setting the structure of the universe within the horizon at time t is the mass-energy content within R0. The influence of these distant regions of the universe ended once their radius from us exceeded R0.
Our best fit to the Type Ia supernova data indicates that t0 would then have to be ~16.9 billion years. Though surprising at first, an older universe such as this would actually eliminate several other long-standing problems in cosmology, including the (too) early appearance of supermassive black holes (at a redshift > 6) and the glaring deficit of dwarf halos in the local group.
Our study has shown that scaling solutions not only fit the Type Ia supernova data much better than the basic _CDM cosmology, but they apparently simultaneously solve several conundrums with the standard model. As long as the time-averaged value of ! is less than −1/3, they eliminate both the coincidence and flatness problems, possibly even obviating the need for a period of rapid inflation in the early universe (see, e.g., Guth 1981; Linde 1982).
On the observational front, the prospects for confirming or rejecting some of the ideas presented in this paper look very promising indeed.”

Of course, his approach leads to speculation and other questions which he might have thought of and cannot published …. Yet!
If we can see the light (CBR) 400,000 years after the big bang then that means that those photons (EMF) have not left the universe. The universe was a 400,000 lyr sphere containing all the photons and all the particles. Something had to keep the photons from escaping or otherwise the universe would be losing energy.
It would be like dropping a rock into an ocean. The wave would keep going and never come. So, if there is no barrier, the observed (CBR) cannot be from 400,000 years after the big bang. Those photons are long gone.
Explanation #1
The expansion of the universe is always faster then the speed of light. However, that cannot be right because we would not see the light from other galaxies, gravity would not work, etc.
Explanation #2
As the 400,000 light year sphere of particles expands, at less than the speed of light, the photons (EMF) go faster than the expanding size of the particle sphere but are prevented from escaping and just go bouncing around and around within that barrier.
Therefore, the evidence of the (CMR) is the evidence of a barrier; the conservation of energy is the evidence of a barrier; neutrinos from the big bang epoch are supposed to be still around and if discovered would prove that there is a barrier keeping them here.
What keeps the photons with a redshift of z = 10 to z = 1089 within our universe?
Can anyone do some explanations of red shift of neutrinos?