What is Ci: Definition and 18 Discussions

Cí (pronounced [tsʰǐ]; Chinese: 詞) is a type of lyric poetry in the tradition of Classical Chinese poetry. Cí use a set of poetic meters derived from a base set of certain patterns, in fixed-rhythm, fixed-tone, and variable line-length formal types, or model examples. The rhythmic and tonal pattern of the ci are based upon certain, definitive musical song tunes. They are also known as Changduanju (長短句 / 长短句, "lines of irregular lengths") and Shiyu (詩餘 / 诗馀, "the poetry is besides Shi").
Typically, the number of characters in each line and the arrangement of tones were determined by one of around 800 set patterns, each associated with a particular title, called cípái (詞牌). Originally, they were written to be sung to a tune of that title, with a set rhythm, rhyme, and tempo. Therefore, the title may have nothing to do with its content. Indeed, several ci often shared the same title. The titles did not refer to the content, but rather their shared rhythmic and tonal patterns. Some cí would have a "subtitle" or a commentary, sometimes as long as a paragraph, indicating the content. Sometimes, for the sake of clarity, a cí is listed under its title, followed by its first line.
Cí most often express feelings of desire, often in an adopted persona, but the greatest exponents of the form (such as Chen Weisong 陳維崧/陈维崧 and Su Shi 蘇軾/苏轼) used it to address a wide range of topics.

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  1. voltech444

    Automotive Ozone Enhanced Combustion of Water/Diesel Emulsion in CI Engines

    I have a single cylinder 5kW diesel generator to use for fuel efficiency and emissions reductions improvement experiments. I built an emulsifier out of an old drill press and paint cans. It's basically just a spinning cylinder inside another cylinder to get a lot of shearing force. The...
  2. L

    Engineering Otto and Diesel cycles: Which PV diagram is for SI and CI?

    Writing about Engines and just muddled up diagrams and confused now. Which PV diagrams is for Compression Ignition and which one for Compression Ignition. I think one on left is CI and right SI. Cheers
  3. entropy1

    I Is the math for collapse int different than for mwi?

    Because I understand that for unitary evolution, MWI is required, which suggests that for different interpretations, there may not be unitary evolution?
  4. entropy1

    What is the difference between MWI and CI?

    Suppose we measure a normalized state ##|\Psi \rangle = \alpha _0 | \lambda _0 \rangle + \alpha _1 | \lambda _1 \rangle + \alpha _2 | \lambda _2 \rangle + ...## with ##| \lambda _i \rangle## the eigenvalues of the measured observable. Is it true that, in the CI, the wavefunction collapses into...
  5. D

    What is the Conversion Rate from Curie to Becquerel?

    Homework Statement 1 Curie corresponds to the number of decay in 1 gram radium-226 in 1 second. How many Bequerel is 1 Curie? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Half life: 1600 years 1 gram = 0,001 kg = (0,001/1,660539*10^-27) u one Radium atom = 226,0260974 u Number of decays...
  6. entropy1

    Do CI and MWI Interpret Quantum Probabilities Differently?

    Suppose we fire a photon P at a polarisation filter F1, and it passes the filter, thus forcing the polarisation of P in an eigenstate M1. Subsequently, the photon falls through a polarisation filter F2, forcing P in eigenstate M2. Now, if I understand correctly, the probability of P passing F2...
  7. pluviosilla

    Deducing Sample Size from Sample Proportion CI

    Homework Statement Suppose we want to estimate a sample proportion to within 0.05 with 95% confidence, how large will the sample have to be? There is no other information about the distributions of the population or the sample. How do I approach this problem? Homework Equations See...
  8. B

    How Much Computing Power is Required for Full CI Calculation of a Molecule?

    For a molecule of n nuclei and x total electrons, how can I work out how much computing power or processing time is required for an exact Full CI calculation for that molecule?
  9. K

    Automotive Why does CI engine performance change with load and speed?

    why the mechanical efficiency and brake thermal efficiency curve increases as load increases and reaches a maximum value and then again decreases( in contand speed test)
  10. M

    Proving that treatment is statistically effective - paired t, P value, CI?

    Hi, I'm really struggling with a statistical problem: 5 people had a medical treatment, they were tested before and after using a questionnaire which recorded some numerical data. I want to analyse the before and after results to see whether there was any change, whether it is...
  11. D

    Constructing 95% CI for Difference in Means of 2 Normals w/ Var Unknown

    I have two samples, one with 21 measurements and one with 23 measurements, from a Normal distribution and I am constructing a 95% CI for the difference in the two means. I do not know the variances of the two Normal distributions. I know that \overline{X_1}-\overline{X_2}~N(\mu_1-\mu_2...
  12. W

    Paired samples-equality of variance and 95% CI around difference in variances

    Hi, Can a few of you please review the approach I plan to take for obvious errors? I have 50 subjects and each have a measure taken on the same variable before and after treatment. So, this is standard paired t-test time, but what I am actually interested in is the variance of the treatment...
  13. S

    What is the optimal basis set for a full CI calculation of low Z elements?

    Hi, I running a full CI calculation for low Z elements (up to Ne) in order to obtain the lowest lying electronic energy levels. I can't seem to get correct results even though I'm using 1-electron states from first 4-6 electron shells. I am also using singly and doubly excited...
  14. D

    The Debate on Quantum Interpretations: MWI, CI, and BM

    Would it be accurate to say MWI is holding strong in the preferred interpretation, CI is dying out (if not dead already), and BM is continuing to be accepted by more researchers (or better yet, it is being studied by more physicists now more than ever)?
  15. S

    Half-Life, Nuclear Decay Related Problem (answer in units of Ci)

    Homework Statement The half-life of an isotope of phosphorus is 14 days. If sample contains 2.9 × 10^16 decays such nuclei, determine its activity. Answer in units of Ci. Homework Equations / The Attempt at a Solution I know that one Ci is equal to 3.7*10^10 bq (or decay per second), I'm...
  16. O

    95% CI for the population proportion

    Homework Statement A 95% CI for the population proportion of professional tennis players who earn more than $2 millions a year is found to be [0.82, 0.88]. Given this information the sample size that was used was approximately A) 545 B) 382 C) 233 D) 378 Answer: A) 545 Homework...
  17. A

    Discussing Advantages/Disadvantages of 2-Stroke Turbocharged CI Engines

    ok now my practicals are 15 days away and i n my friends constantly discuss about advantages and disadvantages of several combinations like 2-stroke SI engine with supercharging or 4stroke CI with CRDi etc etc. since people here are more experienced and have far more facilities than i do, i want...
  18. R

    Exploring Energy from Single Point in Full CI Calculation

    energy from single point rather than expectation integral in Full CI calculation?? Hi, i guess this is kind of a stupid line of thought... if you get a wavefunction, say from a Hartree-Fock calculation, you can find your energy by calculating the expectation value of the hamiltonian. well...