covalent bonding Definition and Topics - 8 Discussions

A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as covalent bonding. For many molecules, the sharing of electrons allows each atom to attain the equivalent of a full valence shell, corresponding to a stable electronic configuration. In organic chemistry, covalent bonds are much more common than ionic bonds.
Covalent bonding also includes many kinds of interactions, including σ-bonding, π-bonding, metal-to-metal bonding, agostic interactions, bent bonds, three-center two-electron bonds and three-center four-electron bonds. The term covalent bond dates from 1939. The prefix co- means jointly, associated in action, partnered to a lesser degree, etc.; thus a "co-valent bond", in essence, means that the atoms share "valence", such as is discussed in valence bond theory.
In the molecule H2, the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons via covalent bonding. Covalency is greatest between atoms of similar electronegativities. Thus, covalent bonding does not necessarily require that the two atoms be of the same elements, only that they be of comparable electronegativity. Covalent bonding that entails the sharing of electrons over more than two atoms is said to be delocalized.

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  1. Dario56

    Why Do Atoms Need to Have Free Electrons to Create Covalent Bonds?

    Atoms bond because compounds are more stable or have less energy than individual atoms. Interatomic potential energy depends with distance of atoms and there is a distance at which potential energy has minimum. This distance is a length of the bond. When forming covalent bonds, why is it...
  2. C

    Can Covalent Bonds form between atoms with no electrons?

    Homework Statement I learned that Covalent Bonds form between different specific atoms ( with similar electro-negativity ) with electrons. However, I wondered what type of bond would form between the different atoms if they had no electrons? Also , if I have 2 atoms with similar...
  3. V

    Hybridisation doubt

    There is an example given in my textbook showing the structure of BF3. In it, they have hybridised the orbitals of B to sp2, but not of F. It's written sp2-p overlapping. Why isn't flourine also hybridised, seeing it has 3 lone pairs and 1 bond pair, it could have sp3 hybridisation? Also, in...
  4. navneet9431

    NaOH Vs C2H5-OH

    If we put NaOH in water then it disassociates into ##OH^{-}## ions(hydroxyl ions) but if we put ##C_2H_5OH## in water it does not disassociates into ##OH^{-}## ions. What is the reason that ##NaOH## disassociates into ##OH^{-}## ions(hydroxyl ions) whereas ##C_2H_5OH## does not disassociate...
  5. I

    Which elements form covalent bonds?

    This might be a very basic question. What are the elements that are in the world of creating covalent bonds, distinguishing themsevels from the elements that never form covalent bonds? Many thanks!
  6. RicardoMP

    Covalent bonding - Energy gain

    Homework Statement I'm considering a molecule made by three atoms, each a vertex of an equilateral triangle. Each atom has a covalent bond with its neighbours, sharing their only valence electron. I must estimate the energy gain when creating the molecule, using tight binding theory. Homework...
  7. D

    Why does the potential energy get lower as atoms get closer?

    Hello. I'm new to this forum and to Physics and Chemistry in general and I have a question that's making me go crazy: why does the potential energy decrease as two atoms (say, hydrogen atoms) get closer to form a molecule? I'm talking about this graphic: I've read that it's related to the...
  8. Priyadarshini

    How Do You Tell When A Compound Will Form A Coordinate Bond?

    How can you tell when a compound will form a covalent bond or a coordinate bond? I know that a coordinate bond is a special type of covalent bond and if during covalent bonding, if the elements taking part do not obtain a noble gas configuration, they for coordinate bonds. But take for example...