# What is Magnetohydrodynamics: Definition and 14 Discussions

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydromagnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties and behaviour of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such magnetofluids include plasmas, liquid metals, salt water, and electrolytes. The word "magnetohydrodynamics" is derived from magneto- meaning magnetic field, hydro- meaning water, and dynamics meaning movement. The field of MHD was initiated by Hannes Alfvén, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970.
The fundamental concept behind MHD is that magnetic fields can induce currents in a moving conductive fluid, which in turn polarizes the fluid and reciprocally changes the magnetic field itself. The set of equations that describe MHD are a combination of the Navier–Stokes equations of fluid dynamics and Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism. These differential equations must be solved simultaneously, either analytically or numerically.

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1. ### I Question about magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for electricity production

According to the MHD theory, is case of energy production, a magnetic appplying a magnetic field to a moving charge perpendicular to the magnetic field, that could be plasma as well a solution full of ions, and placing two plates, electricity could be produced. Now I have a question, let's say...
2. ### Force-free, axisymmetric magnetic field in MHD

Force free: ##\mathbf{J} \times \mathbf{B} \sim (\nabla \times \mathbf{B}) \times \mathbf{B} = 0## (N.B. MHD applies so ##\epsilon_0|\partial \mathbf{E}/\partial t|/|\mathbf{J}| \ll 1##). Axisymmetric: can write ##\mathbf{B} = \nabla \psi \times \nabla \phi + B_{\phi} \mathbf{e}_{\phi}##...
3. ### I Any free MHD software recomended?

I'm currently searhing for a magnetohydrodynamics simulator to study how different molten metals interact with variating magnetic fields, is there any free (preferebly) simulator that someone recomends in particular? And also, is there any way to use Autodesk's CFD to create a MHD simulation?
4. ### Magnetohydrodynamics - Derivation of PDE

Summary:: partial differential equation (PDE) to describe the potential distribution φ in the system Hey, I need some help with the following question: We have a stationary electrolyte, a magnetic field "B" and a Current density "j" (2D). Derive the partial differential equation (PDE) to...
5. ### How can I make a simple inductive MHD thruster in water simulation?

Homework Statement:: Simualte the behaviour of water around an mhd inductive thruster Relevant Equations:: https://www.comsol.fr/paper/download/45837/Pintus.pdf Where can I start this simulation ? What is the required software ? [Mentor Note -- thread moved from the technical forums]
6. ### Magnetohydrodynamics Propulsion

Hey guys. I wanted to ask your opinion about something . I'm interested in MHD propulsion and i know so far that has been inefficient against the usual propulsion systems up to today. Do you think it worths someone getting deeper into it ? I'm thinking how awesome would a practical...
7. ### Modeling of two-phase flows in electric and magnetic fields

Hi, Can anyone direct me to some literature that describes the numerical solution of full Maxwell's equations and Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase/multi-phase flows in coupled electric and magnetic fields. Thanks!
8. ### Equation for plasma wave/light speed travel?

Hi guys I'm finishing up some promo art for my original comic book. You're seein it here first. But its missing something- an appropriate equation. I would like to integrate a math equation into the art. I am attempting to depict FTL travel, using qualities similar to an LWFA, the plasma being...
9. ### Are particles accelerated along magnetic field lines?

I have a question which puzzled me when I was reading up about auroras. When talking about the interaction of the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field, the book said that "particles are accelerated along magnetic field lines towards the earth" That didn’t sound quite right, as I was taught...
10. ### How to Calculate Velocity of Water through a Magnetohydrodynamic Thruster?

Hey, I was trying to find out how to calculate velocity of water through a magetohydrodynamic thruster given current, dimensions, pure water etc and google did not help me in my search, any help appreciated.
11. ### Can Ion Trapping Approaches Effectively Contain Fusion Plasma?

I've been reading some about the ITER project, tokamaks, and other approaches to plasma containment. Why can't ion trapping approaches such as an orbitrap be used for fusion plasma containment?
12. ### Magnetohydrodynamics - Plasma or Liquid more conductive?

Sorry, I am not a physics major - I apologize in advance if this question is ignorant or if this was asked already. What would be the most effective as a Magnetohydrodynamics weapon? Assuming normal ionized air, would a liquid (liquid silver and salt water) or some type of plasma...
13. ### Hello Matt,Is the Magnetohydrodynamics Book Worth Buying?

Hello all, I was going to buy this book. https://www.amazon.com/dp/0486450325/?tag=pfamazon01-20 Has anyone ever used it? If you have used it, is it worth purchasing? Thanks Matt
14. ### Ferrohydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics

Hi guys, I am simulating a flow of ferrofluid in the fluent software.Since ferrofluid does not conduct so the it may not be categorized as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)flow.As far as I know it is called ferrohydrodynamic flow. Now this requires a body force term in fluent...I am relatively new to...