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## Main Question or Discussion Point

The field theories in the standard model haven't been shown to be mathematically consistent. Do "effective field theories" bypass this difficulty? Are they completely mathematically well-defined as an approximation? Of course, if the deeper underlying theory is another QFT or string theory, you still can't prove mathematical consistency. But suppose the underlying theory is a lattice model with a large but

*finite*degree of freedom, do all the problems disappear?