# Are Long GRBs caused by PopIII hypernovae?

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Are Long GRBs caused by PopIII hypernovae?

Diversity of the Supernova - Gamma-Ray Burst Connection by Nomoto, Tominaga, Tanaka, Maeda, Suzuki, Deng, and Mazzali. To be published in the proceedings of the conference “SWIFT and GRBs: Unveiling the Relativistic Universe”, Venice, June 5-9, 2006. To appear in “Il Nuovo Cimento”
Summary. —
The connection between the long Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and Type Ic Supernovae (SNe) has revealed interesting diversity. We review the following types of the GRB-SN connection. (1) GRB-SNe: The three SNe all explode with energies much larger than those of typical SNe, thus being called Hypernovae (HNe). They are massive enough for forming black holes. (2) Non-GRB HNe/SNe: Some HNe are not associated with GRBs. (3) XRF-SN: SN 2006aj associated with X-Ray Flash 060218 is dimmer than GRB-SNe and has very weak oxygen lines. Its progenitor mass is estimated to be small enough to form a neutron star rather than a black hole. (4) Non-SN GRB: Two nearby long GRBs were not associated SNe. Such “dark HNe” have been predicted in this talk (i.e., just before the discoveries) in order to explain the origin of C-rich (hyper) metal-poor stars. This would be an important confirmation of the Hypernova-First Star connection. We will show our attempt to explain the diversity in a unified manner with the jet-induced explosion model.
See the diagram of such a jet-induced hypernova:
Fig. 8. – The density structure of the 40 M⊙ Pop III star explosion model of ˙Edep,51 = 15 at 1 sec after the start of the jet injection. The jets penetrate the stellar mantle (red arrows) and material falls on the plane perpendicular to the jets (black arrows). The dots represent ejected Lagrangian elements dominated by Fe (56Ni, red) and by O (blue).

Garth

Astronuc
Staff Emeritus
Interesting question. It prompted me to look at some other papers - and there is much at which to look.

A new constraint for gamma-ray burst progenitor mass
http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0701562

Recent comparative observations of long duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and core collapse supernovae (cc SN) host galaxies demonstrate that these two, highly energetic transient events are distributed very differently upon their hosts. LGRBs are much more concentrated on their host galaxy light than cc SN. Here we explore the suggestion that this differing distribution reflects different progenitor masses for LGRBs and cc SN. Using a simple model we show that, assuming cc SN arise from stars with main sequence masses $>$8 M$_{\odot}$, GRBs are likely to arise from stars with initial masses $>$ 20 M$_{\odot}$. This difference can naturally be explained by the requirement that stars which create a LGRB must also create a black hole.
This last point is rather interesting.

Are PopIII hypernovae distributed similarly to LGRBs?

Are there LGRBs without PopIII hypernovae - e.g. Hybrid GRB 060614?
http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~avishay/grb060614.html

Here is a page on GRB030329 - http://wise-obs.tau.ac.il/GRB030329/

And then there is - GRB 060218 - http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0701804

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Chronos