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Engineering news on Phys.org

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A Bode plot is a graphical representation of a system's frequency response, showing the magnitude and phase of the output signal relative to the input signal over a range of frequencies.

Gain margin, also known as amplitude margin, is a measure of a system's stability and represents the amount of additional gain that can be applied before the system becomes unstable. It is typically measured in decibels (dB) and is the distance from the system's gain curve to the unity gain line at the frequency where the phase angle is -180 degrees.

Phase margin is another measure of a system's stability and represents the amount of additional phase shift that can be applied before the system becomes unstable. It is typically measured in degrees and is the distance from the phase curve to -180 degrees at the frequency where the gain is 0 dB.

Gain and phase margins are important because they provide insight into a system's stability and performance. A system with large gain and phase margins will be more stable and have a better frequency response, while a system with small margins may be prone to instability and have a poor frequency response.

Gain and phase margins can be calculated by finding the intersect point of the gain and phase curves with the unity gain line and the -180 degree phase line, respectively. The distance from these points to the curves represents the gain and phase margins, respectively.

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