Dismiss Notice
Join Physics Forums Today!
The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

Composition of matter in the universe

  1. Jun 15, 2010 #1
    Okay, so I see this pizza chart a lot on the web that points physical matter with mass making up 4.6% of all matter in the universe, followed by dark matter with 23% and dark energy with the rest.

    Where the heck did old fashion, normal energy go? is it not good enough to get it's own place in the pizza chart? I've seen neutrinos in some, but what about photons, all waves on the electromagnetic spectrum, heat, sound, etc.?

    Also...Is there dark anti matter?
  2. jcsd
  3. Jun 15, 2010 #2


    User Avatar
    Science Advisor

    I believe energy gets lumped in with ordinary matter - it is a rather small percentage. At present physicists don't know what dark matter is, so the question of dark anti-matter is completely up in the air.
  4. Jun 16, 2010 #3


    User Avatar
    Science Advisor

    That depends upon the model of dark matter, but from what I understand, in most models dark matter is composed of roughly equal parts dark matter and anti-dark matter. Due to its low interaction rate, however, most of the dark matter has yet to annihilate.

    The slow, steady annihilation of dark matter particles in dense regions has long been proposed as one method for nailing down the nature of dark matter.
  5. Jun 21, 2010 #4
    OK, so how about trying a different view of the role of Energy in the Universe?

    Energy, Mass & Matter – the hierarchical argument tree

    The aim of the argument is to propose a structure for a practical Unified Field Theory and in so doing, eliminate any requirement for non-sensible (Dark) Matter to exist in the current Universe; the starting point, is the contemporary position, that non-sensible Matter and sensible Matter exist as separate entities.

    The fundamental assumption has been, that non-sensible Matter is an intangible, non-defined and non-reactive medium, that, more or less, permeates the universe and is contemporarily referred to as Dark Matter

    Sea Change Statement - Matter has no mass, only Energy has Mass, Energy is transmitted in the form of a Force and all Forces are a sensible form of Energy.

    Generally, this results in the simple statement “Matter is a sensible form of Energy”.

    Rather than the contemporary position in which non-sensible Matter is without Mass and by definition, does not interact with any Force directly, the situation becomes, the failure to detect non-sensible Matter, supports the proposal that the existence of sensible Matter is entirely an Energy dependent situation and by definition, non-sensible Matter cannot exist as it has no Energy.

    In support of the above, the following simple positions are put. Over-riding all other considerations, is the position that the various forms of Energy, define the form sensible-Matter will take in facilitating transmission of Energy in a resulting Force and this argument raises the following logical alternatives, although there may be others:

    1. In a single Universe environment, either:
    a) The sum of Matter and Dark Matter in a Universe exceeds the Energy in that Universe or
    b) Matter is spontaneously generated as required by Energy in the establishment of a Force and is effectively, a boot strapping event or
    c) Matter is simply a configuration of Energy in a sensible form, as a Force, and without Energy, Matter does not exist at all

    2. The argument, dependent upon the amount of Matter in a Universe dictating whether the Gravitational Force within that Universe results in that Universe oscillating between expansion and collapse sequences or expands for ever, is spurious, if such an overriding condition exists, it is the Gravitational effect associated with the amount of Energy in any given Universe, that is the controlling factor; it being the case that non-sensible Matter, if it were to exist at all, being inert in all respects, can have no effective input upon such a significant Gravity driven event, whereas, it is proposed that all Energy has Mass and therefore directly both contributes to and is effected by Gravity.

    Logically, 1.a and 1.b are far less likely arguments, whereas 1.c eliminates the need for non-sensible Matter to exist at all, a contention supported by science‘s general inability to clearly identify non-sensible Matter, anywhere in the universe. Moreover, 1.c also and clearly supports the contention of 2. that Energy itself directly interacts with Gravity, and within this context, a simple extension results in the proposal. It is the total Energy of a Universe that dictates the end effect of the Gravity within that Universe, hence, such seemingly minor matters as the level of background radiation, play a pivotal role in the future development of any Universe; basically, whether it should expand forever or collapse under the influence of it’s own Gravity, not the amount of Matter in that Universe.

    Given Gravity clearly effects electro-magnetic waves, for example, as the speed of light is constrained to a constant, in the vacuum of space, then localized or general variations in distance, caused by static or fluctuating Gravity fields, implies that not only does Gravity provide the mechanism for a Unified Field Theory but this same theory unifies Time with all the known Forces, given the demonstrable ability of Gravity to effect Time. There being an actual requirement for the speed of light to remain a constant in the vacuum of space, then any fluctuation in distance caused by a Gravity field, requires an equivalent fluctuation in Time, for the speed of light to remain that constant.

    Clearly, this identifies the mechanism by which, as fluctuations in Energy levels occur, due to acceleration, per say, there is a predictable fluctuation in Mass and this proposal provides a simple explanation for the increase in Mass due to acceleration. It is merely the case, that as Energy is transmitted as a Force in the form of sensible Matter, the apparent increase in Mass is nothing more than the tactile expression of this increase in the Force. The argument further dispels any controversy over the creation of Matter as an independent entity, and should eliminate conjecture that Energy and Matter are interchangeable; simply, the higher Mass is specific to the higher level of Energy alone and there is no actual requirement for the creation of additional Matter to explain an increase in Mass.

    Clearly, from the preceding, it thus becomes, there is no apparent contradiction of the classical equation for Energy, E = mc^2, but this should now be reinterpreted for what it actually represents, an entirely Energy related formula in which Matter itself, plays no role, other than as a transient medium, and results in a formula that might be better writ as E = (mE)c^2

    Fundamentally, in terms of the contemporary Mass Energy equivalence, Mass is nothing more than the measure of a characteristic of Energy as a Force, in alternative units. Conventionally, it might be more appropriate to use a replacement equation, wherein, (mE) is representative of the Energy of the sensible Matter, rather than the conventional definition of Mass as the defining unit of sensible Matter.

    This conjecture, goes someway to confirming that Gravity effects and is effected by Energy, directly, and this does not obviously conflict with the outcome of the contemporary formula; simply, the identity of the active component has been redefined and in which case, sensible Matter, as such, is incidental to, but plays no real role in the calculation.

    The argument appears to also remove the contentious situation of Energy and Matter being interchangeable due to a substantial increase in Velocity or any otherwise induced increases in Energy; there is no longer a need to identify an increase in apparent Mass of an observed object, due to an increase in it’s Velocity, as evidence of an increase in Matter. It now simply becomes, that the increase in Energy, must result in an increase in Mass, without Matter itself, playing any real part in this change of the observable Mass due to the higher Velocity. Matter simply remains, the sensible form of Energy.

    Essentially, in all things and in all states, sensible Matter, becomes nothing more than a transient form, no matter how long it may endure; and remains essentially a medium by which Energy is transmitted as a Force. Clearly, this construct also provides substantial support for the Corpuscular aspect of Light, in that in any interaction involving Light, the transmission of Energy as a Force, must include sensible Matter, the individual Photon; however, this does not preclude a stream of such Photons presenting as a wave at the point of their detection, nor does it preclude a single Photon detection presenting as an interference pattern in the various classical slit generated interference pattern experiments (refer – Light and all that other Matter).

    Perhaps refraction, as demonstrated in such experiments, is nothing more than the result of the very week Gravitational interactions at very small scales.

    This simple shift of identifying Mass and Gravity directly with Energy, effectively unites Gravity with all the other known Forces, and provides a path to a simple Unified Field Theory.

    Within this context, as the interactions of Energy as distinct from Matter, becomes the singularly over-riding characteristic of all Universal events, it would appear to give credence to the argument, that two dimensional String Theory may actually provide the correct explanation of the mechanism by which sensible Matter exists, within an otherwise exclusively Energy based Universe; and the vibrational Energy of such Strings, once again defines the Mass associated with the sensible Matter generated by such Strings. This would appear consistent with 1.c above and provides an argument supporting the contention that non-sensible Matter need not exist at all. It simply remains the case, Matter is the sensible form of Energy as a Force.

    The most logical outcome of the above, is that Matter is simply a sensible form of Energy, and to be a Force, Energy needs to take a sensible form and as such; Matter as an entity without Energy, does not exist.

    Given Gravity is effected by and effects Energy in all it’s various sensible forms and Gravity also effects Time, as demonstrated by the gravitational lensing of light (refer - "Laser Interferometry Gravity-wave Observatories – The Error in Concept and Development of an Alternative Gravity-wave Observatory"), then not only does Gravity act as a medium unifying all the known forces, but by this mechanism, even Time itself, is incorporated within this Unified Field Theory.

    This clearly supports the more general and contemporary view of the universal medium as "Space Time", providing a clear identification of the linkages between Energy, Forces, Sensible Matter and Time, over the broad scale of events of the existing Universe, and in doing so, entirely eliminates the requirement for non-sensible (Dark) Matter.

    With regards the effect of Gravity on Time, this raises some interesting alternatives related to the Event Horizon associated with Super Massive Bodies, particularly singularities, such as Black Holes (refer - "Gravitational Effects on Time – Event Horizon implications").

    Within the context of the above, it is proposed, the Universe as we know it to be and within the constraints presented in the argument above, is exclusively an Energy specific environment, in which Gravity plays the major interactive role.
Know someone interested in this topic? Share this thread via Reddit, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook